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The law is not equipped to consider scientific dispute

BMJ 2016; 352 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i1768 (Published 31 March 2016) Cite this as: BMJ 2016;352:i1768

Striking off Dr Squiers from the GMC deprives patients of her invaluable contribution to developmental neuropathology. On the occasion of her appeal

On 21st March Dr Waney Squier, an internationally respected paediatric and perinatal neuropathologist who has published seminal work on hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (lack of oxygen in the brain) in neonates, was struck off by the GMC. She was found to have been dishonest in her dealing with cases in the Family Court. She was not reported to the GMC by any judge but by the National Policing Improvement Agency. We are concerned that the assessment of whether she was misquoting or misusing expert literature in this area in which there are genuine and significant differences of opinion amongst experts working in the field is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Dr Squier is appealing this judgement. Even if it is found to be true that her role as an expert witness in cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome was inadequate, surely the penalty for this should not be to strike her off the register, disregarding her expertise in the wider field of paediatric and perinatal neuropathology, in which very few people have her experience.

This action is depriving patients of her valuable diagnostic ability. We urge the GMC to reconsider its judgement.

Dr Irene Scheimberg Consultant Paediatric and Perinatal Pathologist, The Royal London Hospital, London UK (has acted as expert witness)

Prof. Peter Fleming, professor of Infant health and developmental physiology, Bristol. UK (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Miguel Reyes-Múgica, M.D. Marjory K. Harmer Endowed Chair in Pediatric Pathology Chief of Pathology and Head of Laboratories Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC Professor of Pathology University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Editor-in-Chief Pediatric and Developmental Pathology

Dr Marta Cohen, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Sheffield Children’s Hospital UK

Sir Iain Chalmers, co founder of Cochrane collaboration

Prof J. Bruce Beckwith, Retired Pediatric Pathologist, Montana, USA

Dr Don B. Singer, MD, Professor Emeritus of Pathology, Brown University Providence, RI USA

Prof. Liliane Boccon-Gibod Hopital d'Enfants Armand Trousseau, Paris Paediatric Pathology Society Past President International Paediatric Pathology Association Past President

Dr Catherine Cullinane, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Leeds, UK

Dr Pauline Chou, Professor Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Dr Carlos A Galliani, Medical Director and Chief pathologist, Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, US

Dr Rita Alaggio, Histopathologist, Padova, Italy

Dr Helen Wainwright Consultant Perinatal pathologist, Groote Schuur hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

Prof. TP Dawson BSc(hons) MB BCh PhD FRCPath, Clinical Professor and Consultant in Neuropathology Lancashire Teaching Hospitals, Preston UK

Dr Maria Thom, Professor and Honorary Consultant in Neuropathology Depts. Neuropathology and Clinical& Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London UK

Dr Esin Kotiloglu-Karaa Consultant Paediatric Pathologist Royal London Hospital, London, UK

Dr Isabel Colmenero Consultant Pediatric pathologist, Hospital del Niño Jesus, Madrid and Birmingham Children’s Hospital UK

Dr Ina Nicklaus-Wollenteit Consultant Paediatric Histopathologist Birmingham Children’s Hospital UK

Dr Cesar Peres Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Sheffield Children’s Hospital UK

Dr Samantha Holden, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK

Dr Srinivas Annavarapu, Consultant perinatal Pathologist, Newcastle, UK

Dr Chitra Sethuraman, Manchester Children’s Hospital, UK

Dr Jens Stahlschmidt, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Leeds, UK

Dr Caroline Gannon MA, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK

Dr David O’Neil, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Nottingham, UK

Dr Tamas Marton, consultant perinatal pathologist, Birmingham, UK

Dr Beata Hargitai, consultant perinatal pathologist, Birmingham, UK

Dr Kerry Turner, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Leeds, UK

Dr Clair Evans, Consultant Paediatric pathologist, Glasgow children’s Hospital. Scotland UK

Dr Mudher Al-Adnani, Consultant Paediatric pathologist, St Thomas Hospital, London, UK

Dr Colene Bowker, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Oxford, UK

Dr Margaret Evans Consultant Perinatal Pathologist, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Scotland, UK

Dr Andree Coetzee, FRCPath, Sheffield, UK

Dr Philip Cox, Consultant Perinatal Pathologist, Birmingham UK

Dr Andrea Nemeth, Professor of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford, UK

Professor Ilana Ariel Head, Perinatal Pathology Unit Department of Pathology Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center and Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel

Dr Paula Borralho, Histopathology, Lisbon, Portugal

Dr Vijay V Joshi, MD, PhD, FRCPath. Freelance Consultant in Pediatric Pathology USA

Dr Mariana Cajaiba MD, Assistant Professor Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, IL USA

Dr Alba Greco, Clinical Professor Pediatric Pathology, NY, USA

Dr Edna M Quintero C Patóloga Pediatra. Bogotá, Colombia

Dr María T G de Davila Consultant Pathologist Garrahan Children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Dra. Yolanda Rocío Peña Alonso, Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos D. F. Mexico

Dr Beatriz de León-Bojorge, MD Anatomopatóloga Ciudad de México, México

Dr David Grynspan, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Canada

Dr Nicole Graf, Head of Histopathology, The Children’s Hospital, Sydney NSW, Australia

Dr Susan Arbuckle, Consultant Histopathologist, The Children’s Hospital, Sydney NSW, Australia

Dr Derek De Sa, Retired Paediatric Pathologist, Vancouver, Canada

Dr Niels Graem, paediatric Pathologist, Righospitalet, Denmark

Dr Charlotte Mechler, Necker Infants Malads Hospital, Paris. France

Dr Yee Khong, Professor, Department of Pathology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, North Adelaide, Australia

Dr Dafydd G. Thomas, Department of Pathology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Dr Jeff Bonadio, Medical Director, Perinatal Pathology Sand Diego, CA. USA

Dr Carolyn M Salafia MD MS, Institute for Basic research, Staten Island, NY, USA

Dr Kelley Capocelli Medical Director of Anatomic Pathology and Pediatric Pathologist, Children’s Hospital Colorado, USA

Prof. Dr. med Annette Müller Head of Center of Pediatric Pathology, University Clinic Bonn, Germany

Dr Jill Lipsett, Consultant Pathologist, head of Service, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, Australia

Dr Diane Payton, Senior Anatomical Pathologist, Royal Brisbane and Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia

Dr Nicholas Manton, Consultant Pathologist, North Adelaide, Australia

Dr Camelia Stefanovici, Consultant Pathologist, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Dr Jeff Goldstein, Chief of Clinical Pediatric Pathology, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Dr Ona M Faye-Petersen, Professor of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Birmingham Alabama, USA

Professor Seth Love, Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

Paula Borralho Nunes, President of Portuguese Society of Pathology, Professor of Pathology, FMUL, ESTEsL

Sanjay M Sisodiya MA PhD FRCP FRCPE Professor of Neurology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK

Prof Ronald O C Kaschula, A past president of International Paedaitric Pathology Association. A past president of Paediatric pathology Society. A past vice president of International Academy of Pathology

Dr Anastasia Konstantinidou, Perinatal pathologist and Associate Professor of Pathology, Athens, Greece

Dr Fausto Rodriguez, Associate professor of pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA

Dr Benjamin Jacobs, Consultant Paediatrician , Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, UK

Dr Claire Blesing, Consultant Clinical Oncologist, Oxford, UK

Dr Astrid Petersen, Consultant Pathologist, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark

Dr Eduardo Zambrano, Vice Chair of Pediatric Pathology Stanford University, CA, USA

Professor Philip Batman Consultant Pathologist (Retired)

Dr A S Knisely, Consultant in Histopathology, Institute of Liver Studies, King’s College Hospital, London (ret’d); at present, Institut für Pathologie, Medizinische Universitát Graz, Graz, Austria

Dr Zsuzsanna Nagy, Senior Lecturer College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK

Ian Scott, Consultant Neuropathologist, Nottingham University Hospital, Nottingham, UK

Dr Rosalind King, Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, UK

Dr Andrew Dean, neuropathologist, Cambridge Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, UK

Dr Caroline Sewry, Professor of Muscular Pathology, Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre, GOSH, London UK

Dominic G O'Donovan MBChB, FRCPath, Consultant Neuropathologist Addenbrooks Hospital, Cambridge UK

Dr Svetlana Galitzine, Consultant Anaesthetist, Oxford, UK

Dr Malcolm Galloway, Consultant neuropathologist University College Hospitals London and the Royal Free Hospitals, London UK

Dr Jennian Geddes MB BS, MA, FRCPath Retired Reader in Clinical Neuropathology, Queen Mary, University of London (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Carol McGuinness FRCA, Retired Consultant Anesthetist, oxford UK

Dr Rachel Phillips Consultant Radiologist, The Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, UK

Dr David A. Ramsay MB ChB, DPhil (Oxon), FRCPC, FRCPath, MRCP (UK) Neuropathologist, Department of Pathology, University Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Catherine Fallet-Bianco, Neuropathologist, CHU Sainte Justine, Montreal, Canada

Dr Patrick Shannon FRCPC Neuropathology, Perinatal pathologist, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Dr Clayton A. Wiley, Professor of Pathology, Director of Neuropathology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Dr Charles Duyckaerts, Laboratoire de Neuropathologie, Hôpital de La Salpêtrière, Paris, France

Dr Roland Auer, Neuropathologist, Saskatchewan, Canada

Dr Eva Løbner Lund, Consultant Neuropathologist, Righospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

Dr Marta C. Jones, Chief Neuropathology Unit, Children’s Hospital. La Plata. Argentina

Dr Jan E. Leestma, MD, neuropathologist USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Isidro Ferrer, Professor of Neuropathology, University of Barcelona, Spain

Dr Herbert Budka MD, neuropathologist Consultant University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland and Professor and Institute Director, ret Medical University Viena, Austria

Dr Rohini Rattihalli, Paediatric neurology Registrar

Prof. John B P Stephenson Rtd, founder member BPNA, Consultant Paediatric Neurologist Emeritus, Royal hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, UK

Dr Karen Pysden, consultant Paediatric Neurologist, Leed General Infirmary, Leeds, UK

Dr Tony McShane, Consultant paediatric Neurologist, Children’s Hospital Oxford, UK

Dr Jean-Pierre Lin, Consultant Paediatric Neurologist, Evelina Children’s Hospital, London UK

Dr Peggy Frith Retired Consultant Ophthalmologist, Oxford, UK

Dr Dora Steel, Paediatric Registrar

Dr Heinz Jungbluth, Consultant Paediatric Neurologist, St Thomas Hospital London UK

Dr Anirban Majumdar, Consultant Paediatric neurologist, Bristol Royal Children’s Hospital, Bristol UK

Dr Evangeline Wassmer Consultant Paediatric Neurologist, Birmingham Children Hospital, Birmingham UK

Dr Karen Horridge, Consultant Paediatrician (Disability), Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland UK

Dr Richard Newton, Honorary Consultant Paediatric neurologist, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester UK

Dr Lewis Rosenbloom, Consultant Paediatric Neurologist, Alder Hey Children’s Hospital, Liverpool, UK

Dr David Webb, Consultant Paediatric neurologist, Our Lady’s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

Dr Christopher Verity, Consultant Paediatric Neurologist, Addenbrooks Hospital, Cambridge, UK

Dr Rajeeva Singh, Consultant Paediatrician, Mid Yorkshore Hospitals, UK

Dr Paul Carter, Consultant Paediatrician (Community)

Dr Frances Cowan Hon. Senior Lecturer In Perinatal Neurology, Imperial college, London, UK

Dr Jiayi Leow, ST4 Paediatrics

Prof Paola Domizio, Senior Lecturer and Consultant Pathologist, London, UK

Dr Deirdre Ryan, Consultant Pathologist, London, UK

Dr Luis Beltran, consultant pathologist, London, UK

Dr Hasan Rizvi, Consultant Histopathologist Royal London Hospital, London, UK

Dr Marie Calaminici Consultant Histopathologist Royal London Hospital, London, UK

Dr Andrzej Karmolinski, Consultant Histopathologist, Taunton & Somerset NHS Trust UK

Dr Michael Sheaff Consultant Histopathologist Royal London Hospital, London, UK

Dr Daniel Berney, Consultant Histopathologist Royal London Hospital, London, UK

Dr John Nottingham, Retired Histopathologist, Northamptonshire, UK

Dr Peter Millard Consultant Histopathologist (Rtd), John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK

Dr Mary Anthony, Retired Consultant Neonatologist, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford UK

Dr Rupert McShane, Consultant Psychiatrist, Oxford, UK

Dr David Davies, Retired Consultant Histopathologist, Oxford, UK

Dr Peter Gonda, Consultant Pathologist, University Hospital Southampton, Portsmouth, UK

Dr Patrick E. Lantz, MD Professor of Pathology Winston Salem, NC, USA

Dr Douglas Smith Professor of Pathology at the University of Michigan until 2009, USA

Dr John Plunkett Diplomate, American Board of Pathology in Anatomic, Clinical, and Forensic Pathology, Welch, MN USA. (has acted as expert witness)

Dr James T. Eastman, MD, FCAP Retired, Honorary Fellow Dept. of Pathology and Lab Medicine University of Wisconsin – Madison WI USA

Dr Charles J. Hyman, MD General and Forensic Pediatrics (has acted as expert witness)

Dr George R Nichols, MD, consulting forensic pathologist and retired Chief Medical Examiner (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Edward N Willey, MD Independent Consultant in Forensic medicine (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Dimitri L. Contostavlos, M.B. B.Ch. Retired forensic pathologist, medical examiner (Dade County Florida, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Steven C. Gabaeff, MD, FAAEM, FACEP, AMAAFS Clinical Forensic Medicine Diplomat Emeritus American Board of Emergency Medicine Fellow of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine Fellow of the American College of Emergency Physicians Associate Member the American Academy of Forensic Sciences

Dr Janice Ophoven, Forensic pathologist, MN, USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Ronald Wright, Forensic Pathologist, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr David Fowler, Forensic Pathologist and Chief Medical Examiner, Baltimore, MD USA(has acted as expert witness)

Dr Charles M Harvey, MD Forensic Pathology Consultant Boerne, Texas US (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Shaku Teas, Forensic Pathologist, River Islands, Illinois, USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Robert H. Garman, President Consultants in Veterinary Pathology, Murrysville, PA, USA

Dr Thomas L Bohan, PhD, JD President 2015-2017 Forensic Specialties Accreditation Board President 2009-2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr John D. Lloyd, PhD., CPE, CBIS Director of Traumatic Brain Injury Research Lab, James A. Haley Veterans’ Hospital, Tampa, FL (retired) Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida College of Engineering, Tampa, FL Research Director, BRAINS Inc., San Antonio, FL USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Denson G. Fujiokawa, Clinical Professor of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Dr Anne Nesbitt, Retired Consultant Community paediatrician, London UK

Prof Sufin Yap, Consultant Paediatrician in Metabolic Medicine, Sheffield Children’s Hospital, Sheffield, UK

Dr Joanna Garstang, Consultant Community Paediatrician, Honorary Clinical Associate Professor Warwick Medical School, Coventry, UK

Dr Helen Salisbury, GP and Honoarary Clinical Senior Lecturer, Nuffield Department of Primary Care health Science, Oxford, UK

Dr Stephen Kempley, Consultant Neonatologist, London, UK

Dr Lina Davidsson MD, Specialist GM and Nephrology. Stockholm Sweden

Prof. Peter Blair, Reader in Medical Statistics, University of Bristol, UK

Dr Marvin Miller, MD Dayton Children's Department of Medical Genetics Dayton, Ohio (has acted as expert witness)

Dr David Ayoub, MD Clinical Radiologists, SC, Springfield, Illinois USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr John Galaznik, M.D., FAAP Pediatrician, USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Joseph Scheller Child neurologist Baltimore MD USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Yevgeniy Trufanov, Associate Professor Department of Neurology, Kiev, Ukraine

Dr Horace B Gardner MD Ophthalmologist (retired) USA (has acted as expert witness)

Dr Göran Högberg MD PhD Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist. Sweden

Dr Elizabeth Shanson, Retired Microbiologist UK

Dr Ulf Högberg, MD, PhD, Senior Professor in obstetrics and gynecology Uppsala, Sweden

Dr Stephen Watkins, Stockport, UK

Dr Philip Lingard, GP, London UK

Dr David Shlugman, UK

Dr Helena McKeown FRCGP, GP partner, The Three Swans Surgery, Salisbury

Dr Pam Wortley, Retired GP, Sunderland UK

Elisa Groff Forensic Anthropologist, Exeter, UK

David Weidner, Clinical Psychologist,

Dr Michael J Powers Barrister QC BSc MB BS DA FFFLM LLD (Hon)

Michael Mansfield Barrister QC London UK

Michael Turner Barrister QC London UK

Judy Khan Barrister QC, London UK

Peter Wilcock Barrister QC, London UK

Stephen Kamlish Barrister QC, London UK

Henry Blaxland Barrister QC, London UK

Rajiv Menon Barrister QC Garden Court, London UK

Ian Peddie Barrister QC Garden Court, London UK

Icah Peart QC, London UK

David Hislop QC Barrister London, UK

Marguerite Russell Barrister , London UK

Martin Hussein Barrister, London UK

Sean Horstead Barrister, London UK

Anya Lewis Barrister , London UK

Beth O'Reilly Barrister , London UK

James Mehigan Barrister, London UK

Abigail Bache, London UK

Nerida Harford-Bell Barrister, London UK

Michael House Barrister, London UK

Mark Gatley Barrister, London UK

Chris McWatters Garden Court, London UK

Sarah Forster Barrister, London UK

Christian Wasunna Barrister, London UK

Keir Monteith Barrister, London UK

Dinah Loeb Barrister, London UK

Rebekah Wilson Barrister, London UK

Sharon Love Barrister, London UK

Jo Cecil Barrister, London UK

Catherine Oborne Barrister, London UK

Alistair Polson Barrister London UK

Terry Mcguinness Barrister, London UK

Henry Drayton Barrister, London UK

Amina Ahmed Barrister, London UK

Stephen Lue Barrister, London UK

Celia Graves Barrister London UK

Francis Cassidy Barrister, London UK

Kathy Thorne, Barrister, London UK

Charles Charalambous, Solicitor, London, UK

William Bache, Solicitor London UK

Sarah Panizzo, Solicitor London UK

Claire Richards, ex member of RCPath Lay Advisory Committee

Clive-Stafford Smith, Director Reprieve, Louisiana, USA

Linda Starr Clinical Professor of Law and Legal Director Northern California Innocence Project at Santa Clara University School of Law Santa Clara, CA USA

Keith A Findley Assistant Professor Co-Director, Wisconsin Innocence Project, University of Wisconsin Law School, Madison, WI USA

Adele Bernhard Adjunct Professor and Supervising Attorney New York Law School Post-Conviction Innocence Clinic

Barry Schek Professor of Law, Cardozo School of law, Co-director Innocence Project, NY, USA

Craig Trocino Director, Miami Law Innocence Clinic Coral Gables, FL 33146

Julie Jonas, Legal Director Minnesota Innocence Project St. Paul, MN 55104

David Hirsch, Lawyer New Hampshire NH USA

Paige Kaneb Northern California Innocence Project, CA USA

Valena Beety Associate Professor, West Virginia University College of Law, VI USA

Maddy deLone, Executive Director, Innocence Project, NY, USA

Peter J Neufeld, Co-Director Innocence Project, NY, USA

Doug Olson Assistant Federal Defender District of Minnesota USA

Tucker Carrington, Director George C. Cochran Innocence Project University of Mississippi School of Law USA

M. Chris Fabricant, director Strategic Litigation, Innocence Project New York, USA

Katherine Judson SBS/AHT Litigation Coordinator Wisconsin Innocence Project, WI USA

Marna M. Lake Attorney at law Colorado, USA

Bill Oberly Executive Director Alaska Innocence Project, USAQ

Aaron Meyer Law Laguna Hills, California, USA

Ulf Davidsson, System developer, Sweden

Darah Roland, Lawyer Texas, USA

Sarah Port, KPT Solicitors, Bridgend, UK

Sarah Pope, Albion Chambers, Bristol UK

Margaret Gardener, Director False allegations support, UK

Michael Nott LLB GDLP Lawyer Katoomba NSW, Australia

Charles Pragnell, Executive Chairman, National Child Protection Alliance & National Council for Children Post-separation, Australia

Anthony J Sassan, lawyer, Crystal Lake, IL, USA

Bruce Anton, Innocence Project, TX, USA

Gary Udashen, Innocence Project, TXC, USA

Suranya Aiyar, Attorney, New Dehli, India

Jeffrey S Brown, Fierst, Kane & Bloomberg Lawyer, MA, USA

Jennifer Fitzgerald, Lawyer, Rhode Island, USA Attorney

Melissa Staas, Attorney, Family Defense Center, Chicago, IL, USA

David J. Lansner, Lansner & Kubitschek, New York, USA

Timothy J. Rensch, Rensch Law Rapid City, South Dakota USA

Russell Lane, consultant neurologist

Bergina Brickhouse

Zhongxue Hua, MD-PhD, Forensic Pathologist & Neuropathologist, New York, New York, USA

Sue Luttner

Dr. Michael Farrell FRCPI, FRCPath, FRCPC, Neuropathologist, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Republic of Ireland

Dr Ana Alarcon Allen PhD FRCPCH, Consultant Neonatologist, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK

And 83 more signatories whose competing interests were not received at the time of posting.

Competing interests: Some doctors act as expert witnesses in court. Some lawyers have defended people accused of shaking babies. See attached file for competing interests of authors.

07 October 2016
Irene Scheimberg
Paediatric Pathologist
Prof. Peter Fleming, professor of Infant health and developmental physiology, Bristol, UK (has acted as expert witness); Dr Miguel Reyes-Múgica, M.D. Marjory K. Harmer Endowed Chair in Pediatric Pathology, Chief of Pathology and Head of Laboratories, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Professor of Pathology University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Editor-in-Chief, Pediatric and Developmental Pathology; Dr Marta Cohen, Consultant Paediatric Pathologist, Sheffield Children’s Hospital, UK; Sir Iain Chalmers, co founder of Cochrane collaboration; Prof J. Bruce Beckwith, Retired Pediatric Pathologist, Montana, USA; Dr Don B. Singer, MD, Professor Emeritus of Pathology, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 247 others listed in the text; 83 more signatories
Royal London Hospital, London, UK