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Letters “Vaginal seeding” after caesarean section

Safety of vaginal microbial transfer in infants delivered by caesarean, and expected health outcomes

BMJ 2016; 352 doi: (Published 31 March 2016) Cite this as: BMJ 2016;352:i1707
  1. Jose C Clemente, assistant professor1,
  2. Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, associate professor2
  1. 1Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
  2. 2School of Medicine, New York University, New York, USA
  1. jose.clemente{at}

Cunnington and colleagues recently acknowledged that birth by caesarean delivery is associated with increased risk of metabolic and immune diseases.1 This risk is also increased by alterations of the microbiota during early development in these neonates.2 3 The authors state that “vaginal seeding” might restore the microbiota of such infants and decrease the risk of disease, but that its health benefits are unproven. …

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