Intended for healthcare professionals


UK alcohol industry’s “billion units pledge”: interim evaluation flawed

BMJ 2015; 350 doi: (Published 24 March 2015) Cite this as: BMJ 2015;350:h1301

Symptoms of Addiction

There are two early warning symptoms of addiction: tolerance and withdrawal. Tolerance means that, with time, you progressively crave more and more of an addictive substance. For example, if you drink one glass of wine every day, soon you will want two or three glasses of wine every day. Withdrawal means that if you stop an addictive substance, you will feel sick and crave it. For example, if you stop drinking wine, you will feel nervous and irritable and crave wine. In short, tolerance and withdrawal are indicative of addiction and predictive of its insatiable craving, frustration, anger, and poor judgment.

Competing interests: No competing interests

01 April 2015
Hugh Mann
New York, USA