Intended for healthcare professionals


Measurement of data

BMJ 2010; 341 doi: (Published 27 October 2010) Cite this as: BMJ 2010;341:c5929
  1. Philip Sedgwick, senior lecturer in medical statistics
  1. 1Section of Medical and Healthcare Education, St George’s, University of London, Tooting, London, UK
  1. p.sedgwick{at}

A randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of an integrated care programme compared with usual care in facilitating the return to work for patients with chronic low back pain.1 The integrated care programme was a combined patient and workplace directed intervention. The trial participants were 134 adults aged 18-65 years who had had low back pain for more than 12 weeks, were in paid work, and had been absent or partially absent from work.

Variables measured at baseline included patient’s sex, age, and level of education. Level of education was classified as low (preschool or primary school), intermediate (secondary school), and high (tertiary, university, or postgraduate). Trial participants were followed for 12 months. The primary outcome was duration of time off work after randomisation until a fully sustained return …

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