Intended for healthcare professionals

Endgames Statistical question

Study design

BMJ 2009; 338 doi: (Published 17 June 2009) Cite this as: BMJ 2009;338:b2381
  1. Philip Sedgwick, senior lecturer in medical statistics
  1. 1Centre for Medical and Healthcare Education, St George’s, University of London, London SW17 0RE
  1. p.sedgwick{at}

    A clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of topical versus oral ibuprofen for chronic knee pain in people over 50. In designing a trial to decide the best treatment approach, which answer best describes how confounding could be minimised?

    • a) Double blind trial

    • b) Intention to treat analyses

    • c) Matching by age and sex

    • d) Randomisation of research participants


    d—Randomisation means that all individuals have the same probability of being allocated to …

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