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The joint impact on being overweight of self reported behaviours of eating quickly and eating until full : cross sectional survey

BMJ 2008; 337 doi: (Published 21 October 2008) Cite this as: BMJ 2008;337:a2002
  1. Koutatsu Maruyama, graduate student12,
  2. Shinichi Sato, director23,
  3. Tetsuya Ohira, associate professor12,
  4. Kenji Maeda, chief physician2,
  5. Hiroyuki Noda, research fellow14,
  6. Yoshimi Kubota, graduate student 12,
  7. Setsuko Nishimura, dietitian2,
  8. Akihiko Kitamura, director2,
  9. Masahiko Kiyama, director2,
  10. Takeo Okada, director2,
  11. Hironori Imano, chief physician2,
  12. Masakazu Nakamura, director2,
  13. Yoshinori Ishikawa, deputy president2,
  14. Michinori Kurokawa, dietitian5,
  15. Satoshi Sasaki, professor 6,
  16. Hiroyasu Iso, professor1
  1. 1Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, 2-2 Suita-shi, Osaka, Japan 565-0871
  2. 2Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion, Osaka, Japan
  3. 3Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Chiba-City, Japan
  4. 4Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard University, MA, USA
  5. 5Division of Health and Welfare, Osaka Prefecture, Japan
  6. 6Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Japan
  1. Correspondence to: H Iso fvgh5640{at}
  • Accepted 25 August 2008


Objective To examine whether eating until full or eating quickly or combinations of these eating behaviours are associated with being overweight.

Design and participants Cross sectional survey.

Setting Two communities in Japan.

Participants 3287 adults (1122 men, 2165 women) aged 30-69 who participated in surveys on cardiovascular risk from 2003 to 2006.

Main outcome measures Body mass index (overweight ≥25.0) and the dietary habits of eating until full (lifestyle questionnaire) and speed of eating (validated brief self administered questionnaire).

Results 571 (50.9%) men and 1265 (58.4%) women self reported eating until full, and 523 (45.6%) men and 785 (36.3%) women self reported eating quickly. For both sexes the highest age adjusted mean values for height, weight, body mass index, and total energy intake were in the eating until full and eating quickly group compared with the not eating until full and not eating quickly group. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio of being overweight for eating until full was 2.00 (95% confidence interval 1.53 to 2.62) for men and 1.92 (1.53 to 2.40) for women and for eating quickly was 1.84 (1.42 to 2.38) for men and 2.09 (1.69 to 2.59) for women. The multivariable odds ratio of being overweight with both eating behaviours compared with neither was 3.13 (2.20 to 4.45) for men and 3.21 (2.41 to 4.29) for women.

Conclusion Eating until full and eating quickly are associated with being overweight in Japanese men and women, and these eating behaviours combined may have a substantial impact on being overweight.


  • We thank for their cooperation with this study the municipal authorities, officers, and physicians of Ikawa town, Yao city, and Osaka prefecture, and their colleagues in Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion.

  • Contributors: KM analysed and interpreted the data, drafted the manuscript, and provided statistical expertise. YK, SN, MK, and SS acquired the data and critically revised the manuscript. SS, TO, KM, HN, AK, MK, TO, HI, MN, YI, and HI conceived and designed the study, acquired and interpreted the data, and critically revised the manuscript. HI is guarantor for the paper.

  • Funding: This study was supported in part by a contract from the Japanese Ministry of Education (grant in aid for exploratory research No 19659168).

  • Competing interests: None declared.

  • Ethical approval: Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion research ethics committee.

  • Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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