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Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: Causality remains unconvincing

BMJ 2006; 333 doi: (Published 31 August 2006) Cite this as: BMJ 2006;333:501
  1. Gruffydd P Jones, general practitioner (
  1. Meddygfa Waunfawr, Caernarfon, Gwynedd LL55 4YY

    EDITOR—I can draw only one certain conclusion from the study reported by Verhamme et al1: it is unwise to ascribe causality to an association demonstrated by a case-control study. The authors have shown that people who get gastrointestinal bleeds are four to six times more likely to be taking spironolactone than those who don't get such bleeds. Does this …

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