Intended for healthcare professionals


Was Rodney Ledward a statistical outlier?:Authors' reply

BMJ 2005; 330 doi: (Published 16 June 2005) Cite this as: BMJ 2005;330:1448
  1. Mike Harley, director (,
  2. John Yates, professor,
  3. Mohammed A Mohammed, senior research fellow,
  4. Shakir Hussain, statistician,
  5. Abdullah Almasri, visiting statistician
  1. Inter-Authority Comparisons and Consultancy, Health Services Management Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2RT
  2. Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT
  3. Department of Primary Care and General Practice, University of Birmingham

    EDITOR—Connolly and Cowling and Hedley raise several technical issues relating to our article. Connolly says that we have not shown that the number of outliers we identified is above that expected by chance alone. When considering the annual analyses, by chance alone one would expect 5% of consultants to be outliers. As table 2 in our paper shows, in any year, we found three times as many …

    View Full Text

    Log in

    Log in through your institution


    * For online subscription