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Underwater birth and neonatal respiratory distress:Case report does not constitute reliable evidence

BMJ 2005; 330 doi: (Published 16 June 2005) Cite this as: BMJ 2005;330:1447
  1. Elizabeth Cluett, senior lecturer (,
  2. Rona McCandlish, research fellow,
  3. Ethel Burns, research midwife lecturer,
  4. Cheryl Nikodem, head, post graduate students and research
  1. University of Southampton, School of Midwifery, Southampton SO17 1BJ
  2. National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF
  3. Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 7PD
  4. University of the Western Cape, Bag X 17, Belville 7535, South Africa

    EDITOR—We were concerned and dismayed to see the case report by Kassim et al of respiratory distress for a baby born in water being cited as evidence of the risk of underwater birth.1 2 Respiratory conditions can occur …

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