“Drink plenty of fluids”: a systematic review of evidence for this recommendation in acute respiratory infectionsBMJ 2004; 328 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38028.627593.BE (Published 26 February 2004) Cite this as: BMJ 2004;328:499
- Search strategy additional terms
(exp Respiratory Tract Infections/ or respiratory infection* or upper respiratory tract infection* or URTI) and (exp Fluid Therapy/ or fluid therapy or exp Water-Electrolyte Balance/ or water electrolyte balance or fluid balance or exp water/ or exp drinking/ or exp drinking behaviour/ or drink* adj (fluid* or water) or exp Infusions, Parenteral/ or parenteral infusion* or exp thirst/ or thirst* or exp water deprivation/ or water intake or fluid intake or rehydration or exp Rehydration Solutions/ or rehydration solution* or oral rehydration therapy or (give fluid*) or (give near fluid*)
Table A Selection of recommendations about fluid in medical texts
Study Publication type URTI Bronchitis or bronchiolitis Pneumonia Campbell 1998w1 Paediatric 0 + + Robinson 2003w2 Paediatric + + + Murtagh 1996w3 General practice ++ — — Fry 1993w4 General practice + + 0 Rosser 1998w5 General practice ++ — — Taylor 1998w6 General practice ++ + + Middleton 1991w7 General practice ++ — — Eisenberg 1998w8 Home medical guide ++ — — Smith 2001w9 Home medical guide ++ — —
URTI=Upper respiratory tract infection.
++=Recommends increased fluid intake.
+=recommends fluid intake, quantity not specified.
0=No fluid recommendation made.
—=Management of condition not addressed.
Table B Additional cases of hyponatraemia in non-dehydrated patients with respiratory infections
Study No of patients Age Diagnosis Serum sodium level (mmol/l) Serum or urine osmolality Symptoms associated with low sodium level Lipsitz 1984w10 1 10 week old girl Mild coryza, had been given large amounts of oral fluids 112 Seizures Rosenow 1972w11 3 40 year old woman, 24 and 28 year old pregnant women Pneumonia 118-135 Dilute serum, concentrated urine 40 year old woman lost consciousness
- Campbell AGM, McIntosh N, eds. Forfar and Arneil’s textbook of pediatrics. 5th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1998:559-70.
- Robinson MJ, Roberton DM, eds. Practical paediatrics. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2003:442-82.
- Murtagh J. General practice. Sydney: McGraw-Hill, 1996:336-7, 609.
- Fry J, Sandler G. Common diseases: their nature, prevalence and care. 5th ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1993:35-94.
- Rosser W, Shafir M. Evidence-based family medicine. Hamilton: BC Decker, 1998:108-9.
- Taylor R, ed. Family medicine. Principles and practice. 5th ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998:328-44, 734-45.
- Middleton D. An approach to paediatric upper respiratory infections. Aust Fam Physician 1991;44:S33-47.
- Eisenberg A. Murkoff H, Hathaway S. What to expect in the toddler years. Sydney: Harper Collins, 1998:596-610.
- Smith T, Davidson S. The British Medical Association new family doctor home advisor. 3rd ed. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2001:77, 106-7, 194-5.
- Lipsitz DJ. Herbal teas and water intoxication in a young child. J Fam Pract 1984;18:933-7.
- Rosenow EC, Segar WE, Zehr JE. Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in pneumonia. Mayo Clin Proc 1972;47:169-74.
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