Intended for healthcare professionals


Long term mortality after starvation during the Leningrad siege: Crucial confounding factor was overlooked

BMJ 2004; 328 doi: (Published 05 February 2004) Cite this as: BMJ 2004;328:346
  1. Michael D Croft, salaried general practitioner (
  1. Gateways Surgery, Shenley, Hertfordshire WD7 9LP

EDITOR—Sparén et al retrospectively analysed outcomes, in terms of cardiovascular mortality, in siege survivors and have selected as controls men of similar age who did not experience the siege.1 The data show that survivors have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The authors conclude that the process of starvation has adversely affected the physiology of the men who experienced food shortages at a critical …

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