Clinical Review

Putting the research into practice

BMJ 2003; 327 doi: (Published 11 December 2003) Cite this as: BMJ 2003;327:1395
  1. Nancy A Rigotti, director (
  1. Tobacco Research and Treatment Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA

    Tobacco use is common and is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States and the United Kingdom. Smoking cessation benefits virtually every smoker, regardless of age, disease state, or years of smoking.1 Smoking persists because of physical dependence on nicotine and psychological dependence on cigarettes as part of the daily routine, and as a way of coping with stress.2 Smokers, even those with tobacco related disease, are often ambivalent about quitting, discouraged by failed attempts to stop, and unaware of effective treatments. Tobacco use is best regarded by doctors as a chronic condition requiring long term management rather than just one-time advice to quit.2 3

    Selecting treatments

    Pharmacotherapy and counselling are each effective for treating tobacco …

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