Intended for healthcare professionals


Warming diptheria-tetanus vaccines doesn't reduce pain

BMJ 2003; 327 doi: (Published 04 September 2003) Cite this as: BMJ 2003;327:0-f

Question Does warming diphtheria-tetanus vaccine reduce the discomfort of the injection?

Synopsis Many healthcare providers warm the phials containing diphtheria-tetanus vaccine before injection to reduce pain and side effects. A convenience sample of 150 patients aged 16 years or older cared for in an emergency department who required a diphtheria-tetanus booster vaccination was identified. Subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind fashion (concealed allocation assignment) to …

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