Endocrine treatment of physiological gynaecomastia

BMJ 2003; 327 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7410.301 (Published 07 August 2003) Cite this as: BMJ 2003;327:301
  1. Hamed N Khan, clinical research fellow,
  2. RW Blamey, emeritus professor of surgery
  1. Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB

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    Gynecomastia is a common condition among normal healthy men of varying ages. Tenderness may be one of its symptoms, but the usual reason for presentation is that young men don't like having breasts and older men are worried about the possibility of cancer. Diagnosis is primarily by clinical examination and where necessary ultrasound and needle biopsy. Traditional methods of management of gynaecomastia have included simple analgesia for pain, and surgery. The most common reason for the patient to request surgery is cosmetic. However, although surgery in experienced hands is safe and effective, with minimal stay in hospital, the cosmetic results cannot always be guaranteed—noticeable scars, permanent pigment changes in the breast area, and mismatched breasts or nipples have been reported.1 …

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