Intended for healthcare professionals


Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review

BMJ 2002; 325 doi: (Published 31 August 2002) Cite this as: BMJ 2002;325:468
  1. Rob D Herbert, senior lecturer (R.Herbert{at},
  2. Michael Gabriel, physiotherapist
  1. School of Physiotherapy, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, New South Wales1825, Australia
  1. Correspondence to: R D Herbert
  • Accepted 21 March 2002


Objective: To determine the effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness after exercise, risk of injury, and athletic performance.

Method: Systematic review.

Data sources: Randomised or quasi-randomised studies identified by searching Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro, and by recursive checking of bibliographies.

Main outcome measures: Muscle soreness, incidence of injury, athletic performance.

Results: Five studies, all of moderate quality, reported sufficient data on the effects of stretching on muscle soreness to be included in the analysis. Outcomes seemed homogeneous. Stretching produced small and statistically non-significant reductions in muscle soreness. The pooled estimate of reduction in muscle soreness 24 hours after exercising was only 0.9 mm on a 100 mm scale (95% confidence interval −2.6 mm to 4.4 mm). Data from two studies on army recruits in military training show that muscle stretching before exercising does not produce useful reductions in injury risk (pooled hazard ratio 0.95, 0.78 to 1.16).

Conclusions: Stretching before or after exercising does not confer protection from muscle soreness. Stretching before exercising does not seem to confer a practically useful reduction in the risk of injury, but the generality of this finding needs testing. Insufficient research has been done with which to determine the effects of stretching on sporting performance.


  • Editorial by MacAuley and Best

  • Funding None.

  • Conflict of interest None declared.

View Full Text