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Conclusions about type 1 diabetes and hygiene hypothesis are premature

BMJ 2001; 322 doi: (Published 09 June 2001) Cite this as: BMJ 2001;322:1429
  1. Wendy J A Anderson (, consultant respiratory physician,
  2. Lorna Watson, specialist registrar in public health medicine
  1. Antrim Hospital, Antrim BT41 2RL
  2. Lothian Health, Edinburgh EH8 6RE

    EDITOR—Johnston and Openshaw state that children are born with strong interleukin 4 based (type 2) immune responses and mature to interferon γ based (type 1) responses, and that this process is under genetic and environmental influence.1 They go on to …

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