Intended for healthcare professionals


We may be in danger of bribing volunteers

BMJ 2001; 322 doi: (Published 06 January 2001) Cite this as: BMJ 2001;322:45
  1. Charles Young, lecturer in accident and emergency medicine (
  1. Imperial College School of Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London W2 1NY

    EDITOR—Christie's news article has highlighted an important inconsistency in the World Medical Association's fifth revision of the Declaration of Helsinki.1 This fundamental document, first adopted by the association in 1964, defines the ethical and moral responsibilities of physicians and others participating in research on human subjects.

    The document insists that all subjects should be volunteers, having freely given informed consent to the research proposed. The …

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