Midline episiotomy and anal incontinence: retrospective cohort studyBMJ 2000; 320 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7227.86 (Published 08 January 2000) Cite this as: BMJ 2000;320:86
- Lisa B Signorello, study coordinator ()a,
- Bernard L Harlow, associate professor of obstetrics, gynaecology, and reproductive biologya,
- Amy K Chekos, research associatea,
- John T Repke, associate professor of obstetrics, gynaecology, and reproductive biologyb
- a Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, United States
- b Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, United States
- Correspondence to: L B Signorello, International Epidemiology Institute, 1450 Research Boulevard, Suite 550, Rockville, MD 20850, United States
- Accepted 1 November 1999
Objective: To evaluate the relation between midline episiotomy and postpartum anal incontinence.
Design: Retrospective cohort study with three study arms and six months of follow up.
Setting: University teaching hospital.
Participants: Primiparous women who vaginally delivered a live full term, singleton baby between 1 August 1996 and 8 February 1997: 209 who received an episiotomy; 206 who did not receive an episiotomy but experienced a second, third, or fourth degree spontaneous perineal laceration; and 211 who experienced either no laceration or a first degree perineal laceration.
Main outcome measures: Self reported faecal and flatus incontinence at three and six months postpartum.
Results: Women who had episiotomies had a higher risk of faecal incontinence at three (odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 16.2) and six (3.7, 0.9 to 15.6) months postpartum compared with women with an intact perineum. Compared with women with a spontaneous laceration, episiotomy tripled the risk of faecal incontinence at three months (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.9) and six months (0.7 to 11.2) postpartum, and doubled the risk of flatus incontinence at three months (1.3 to 3.4) and six months (1.2 to 3.7) postpartum. A non-extending episiotomy (that is, second degree surgical incision) tripled the risk of faecal incontinence (1.1 to 9.0) and nearly doubled the risk of flatus incontinence (1.0 to 3.0) at three months postpartum compared with women who had a second degree spontaneous tear. The effect of episiotomy was independent of maternal age, infant birth weight, duration of second stage of labour, use of obstetric instrumentation during delivery, and complications of labour.
Conclusions: Midline episiotomy is not effective in protecting the perineum and sphincters during childbirth and may impair anal continence.
Funding Brigham and Women's Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology Foundation.
Competing interests None declared.
- Accepted 1 November 1999