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Clinical Review

Science, medicine, and the future: Molecular genetic approaches to understanding disease

BMJ 1997; 314 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7074.126 (Published 11 January 1997) Cite this as: BMJ 1997;314:126

Rapid Response:

Re: Science, medicine, and the future

The technology for animal-human chimeras, human embryo cloning, animal implantation of human embryos, exists for more than a decade. [3][4][5]
Nowadays, CRISPR-cas9 gene editing can quickly and successfully manage to engineer genetically modified farm animals that lack uterine/leucocytic surface proteins which induce rejections/abortions of xenographic embryos.
Several receptor mechanisms, specific for major histocompatibility complex, tolerize fetal antigen-specific maternal CD4⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ T cells, excluding fetal rejection, which can be effectively targeted. [6][7][8][9][10]
Only ethical dilemmas prevent embryonic gestational surrogacy into animal uteri. [1][2]
References
[1] https://www.technologyreview.com/s/545106/human-animal-chimeras-are-gest...
[2] http://www.medicaldaily.com/medical-miracle-or-playing-god-human-chimera...
[3] http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB1016494298564652120
[4] https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4168-first-human-clone-embryo-rea...
[5] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1533441/Scientists-to-mix-cells-o...
[6] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23319400
[7] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029041
[8] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22079431
[9] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20615552
[10] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542445

Competing interests: No competing interests

01 June 2016
Stavros Saripanidis
Consultant in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Thessaloniki, Greece