Authors' reply

BMJ 1996; 312 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7044.1480 (Published 08 June 1996) Cite this as: BMJ 1996;312:1480
  1. Paul Knekt,
  2. Antti Reunanen,
  3. Ritva Jarvinen,
  4. Jouni Maatela
  1. Head of laboratory Head of laboratory National Public Health Institute, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
  2. Lecturer Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland
  3. Chief physician Research and Development Centre, Social Insurance Institution, Helsinki and Turku, Finland

    EDITOR,—Controlling for confounding factors is a major problem of dietary and other observational epidemiological studies is. It is always difficult to conclude whether an association is merely a correlation or a causal connection.1 As Gema Fruhbeck emphasises, we cannot completely rule out the possibility that other compounds in vegetables may also have a role in the associations that we observed. It is well known that when the association between the suggested …

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