Intended for healthcare professionals

Research Article

Short form 36 (SF36) health survey questionnaire: normative data for adults of working age.

British Medical Journal 1993; 306 doi: (Published 29 May 1993) Cite this as: British Medical Journal 1993;306:1437
  1. C Jenkinson,
  2. A Coulter,
  3. L Wright
  1. Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary.


    OBJECTIVES--To gain population norms for the short form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF36) in a large community sample and to explore the questionnaire's internal consistency and validity. DESIGN--Postal survey by using a booklet containing the SF36 and several other items concerned with lifestyles and illness. SETTING--The sample was drawn from computerised registers of the family health services authorities for Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Northamptonshire, and Oxfordshire. SAMPLE--13,042 randomly selected subjects aged 18-64 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Scores for the eight health dimensions of the SF36. RESULTS--The survey achieved a response rate of 72% (n = 9332). Internal consistency of the different dimensions of the questionnaire was high. Normative data broken down by age, sex, and social class were consistent with those from previous studies. CONCLUSIONS--The SF36 is a potentially valuable tool in medical research. The normative data provided here may further facilitate its validation and use.