Research Article

Relation of serum calcium concentration to metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

BMJ 1988; 297 doi: (Published 15 October 1988) Cite this as: BMJ 1988;297:960
  1. L. Lind,
  2. S. Jakobsson,
  3. H. Lithell,
  4. B. Wengle,
  5. S. Ljunghall
  1. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.


    Data from a health screening survey with over 18,000 adult participants were used to determine the relations between serum calcium concentration and the cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidaemia. Blood pressure and serum glucose and cholesterol concentrations were all positively related to each other independent of age, sex, kidney function, and obesity. Similar relations between the risk factors were found in subjects with hypertension or hyperglycaemia independent of the degree of overweight. These results suggested that there might be a metabolic syndrome of cardiovascular risk factors. Serum calcium concentration was positively related to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum glucose and cholesterol concentrations. Thus a common feature in the syndrome is an increased serum calcium concentration. The relations between serum calcium concentrations and the cardiovascular risk factors were not limited to the upper parts of the distribution, being seen over a wide range. Changes in calcium metabolism seem to be related to a metabolic syndrome of hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperlipidaemia.