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Canada supports agency criticised as an “AIDS denier”

BMJ 2003; 327 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7427.1306-c (Published 04 December 2003) Cite this as: BMJ 2003;327:1306

WHAT REALLY CAUSES AIDS?

My extensive review of the medical literature has not led me to a
single individual with AIDS that was caused by HIV, nor a single person
with AIDS who was cured by the treatment with the antiviral agents (AZT
and protease inhibitors). On the contrary, epidemiology and pathology of
AIDS worldwide show that agents and factors other than HIV are responsible
for causing the AIDS epidemic [1-6]. My findings include:

1) The appearance of AIDS in the USA and Europe coincided with the
introduction of crack cocaine, the use of alkyl nitrites by homosexuals to
enhance anal sex, and the approval of glucocorticoid aerosol use to treat
inflammation of respiratory systems in 1976.

2) AIDS in drug users and homosexuals in the USA and in Europe
results from heavy ancillary use of glucocorticoids and other
immunosuppressive agents. Physicians prescribe these drugs to treat a wide
range of chronic illnesses of the respiratory and gastrointestinal
systems, and other organs.

3) AIDS in hemophiliacs relates to the use of corticosteroids and
other immunosuppressive agents to prevent the development of antibodies
for factors VIII and IX, and used to treat other chronic illnesses such as
joint disease.

4) AIDS in people receiving blood and/or tissue follows use of
glucocorticoids to prevent transfusion and tissue rejection, and to treat
other illnesses.

5) AIDS in infants and children is caused by their exposure to drugs
and corticosteroids in utero, and to corticosteroids used after birth to
treat their chronic illnesses.

6) AIDS in Africa results from malnutrition, the consequent release
of endogenous cortisol, and opportunistic diseases. Atrophy in the thymus
and lymphoid tissue in people suffering from malnutrition has been known
since 1925; malnutrition also impairs T cells functions. Feeding an
adequate diet reverses these changes. It cures AIDS! Thymus size in
malnourished children increased from 20% of normal to 107% of normal,
after nine weeks of feeding.

7) Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and lymphoma result from the use of steroids
and drugs, and the release of endogenous cortisol. They are not caused by
a slow virus. Stopping treatment with immunosuppressive agents prior to
metastasis reverses KS in some cases.

8) The medications currently used to treat patients with AIDS, such
as AZT, protease inhibitors, and glucocorticoids are highly toxic. They
can cause AIDS in asymptomatic patients; they worsen the condition of AIDS
patients and even lead to their death. These drugs have no therapeutic
value; their use should stop forthwith.

9) Damage to the immune system is rapidly reversible after removal of
the true insulting agent or treatment of the factual causes. Examples: a)
The CD4+ T cells of 1,075 HIV-positive pregnant women increased from
426/uL to 596/uL in six months on a balanced diet. This also improved the
outcome of their pregnancies; and b) In HIV-positive homosexuals, stopping
treatment with glucocorticoids reversed a fall in CD4+ T cells.

Causes and pathogenesis of AIDS in the USA and the industrialized
world:

The appearance of the AIDS epidemic in the United States of America
in 1981 can easily be explained by the following events.

1) Crack cocaine became very popular in the 1970s and the inhalation
of crack cocaine has caused severe respiratory illnesses that needed long-
term treatment with high doses of powerful anti-inflammatory drugs. The
United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of
glucocorticoids by inhalation in 1976 to treat the inflammation of the
respiratory system and asthma that are caused by inhaling crack cocaine.
The chronic use of medications containing glucocorticoids at high doses by
inhalation caused severe impairment of the immune defenses of the lungs
and the upper respiratory tract. This led to the infection of the lungs
and other organs with opportunistic microorganisms and the development of
cancer [1].

2) Since the 1970s, the prescriptions containing glucocorticoids
have increased tremendously to treat more than forty medical conditions
induced by narcotics. The side effects of these medications include
thrombocytopenia, peripheral neuropathy, and chronic opportunistic
infections. Glucocorticoids have also been given to hemophiliacs to
prevent the development of antibodies against foreign transfused clotting
factors. They are also given to pregnant women who are expected to have
premature infants as the result of the use of illicit drugs, and to their
infants to enhance the maturation of the lungs. The use of other immuno-
suppressant agents, cytotoxic drugs, antibiotics, antiviral, and
antifungal has also increased tremendously since the1970s. Most of these
agents cause bone marrow depression and other tissue damages, which have
also contributed to the pathogenesis of AIDS [1,7].

3) Some homosexual men who inhaled cocaine and/or other narcotics
suffered from respiratory inflammation, infections and other systemic
damage, which are then treated with glucocorticoids. In addition, the use
of alkyl nitrites, also known as “poppers”, became popular in 1970’s among
homosexuals.

The inhalation of “poppers” at sufficient amounts causes
methemoglobinemia and severe headaches, which is then treated with
aspirin. The heavy use of aspirin and alcohol cause thrombocytopenia. As
well, AZT and proteases inhibitors also cause thrombocytopnea, peripheral
neuropathy, and bone marrow depression. Thrombocytopenia, peripheral
neuropathy are classified by the United States Center for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) as an AIDS indicator, which is also treated with high
doses of glucocorticoids that cause AIDS [1-4,7].

The following are clinical examples that show how drug users,
homosexual men, and individuals with chronic health conditions develop
AIDS as a result of the use of the immunosuppressant agents. These
examples also show that AIDS is reversible in HIV-positive individual
following the cessation of the glucocorticoids treatment.

1) A 33-year-old previously healthy female developed acute bilateral
pulmonary infiltrates after 18 hours of intense rock cocaine (crack)
smoking. Ten months later she developed progressive dyspnea and
interstitial pneumonia. She was unsuccessfully treated with high doses of
prednisone (1 mg/kg/day for eight weeks) followed by a trial of
cyclophosphamide. She died due to respiratory failure with a superimposed
mycobacterial infection. The time from her first admission to the hospital
with interstitial pneumonia and her death with AIDS was about 21 months
[8].

2) Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), an AIDS-indicator disease, developed in HIV
-negative patients chronically treated with glucocorticoids and people
suffering from severe malnutrition [1]. For example, KS developed eight
months after initiation of prednisone treatment (40 mg per day for three
months) in a 58-year-old man with systemic rheumatoid disease [9]. He also
had lymphocytopenia (896/µL), reduction of T4 cells (215/µL), and T4/ T8
ratio of 0.7. This man was HIV-negative as tested by western blot. This
case meets all the criteria set by the CDC for the diagnosis of
individuals with AIDS in terms of having their CD4+ T cells below 300
cells/µL and having KS. Yet, this individual was HIV-negative. Also, there
are many individuals who developed KS following treatment with
glucocorticoids and had reversal of their KS after the termination of the
treatment [1].

3) Sharpstone et al. reported that eight HIV-positive males with
inflammatory bowel disease who used rectal steroid preparation had a
decline in their CD4+ T cells at a rate of 85 cells/µL per year [10]. Four
of them underwent coloectomy that eliminated the need for the steroid and
their CD4+ T cells increased 4 cells/µL per year. Eight HIV-positive men
who were used, as match control did not have surgery. They continued to
have a decline of 47 cells/µL per year as the result of the use of rectal
steroids. This study clearly shows that AIDS is caused by glucocorticoids,
that HIV is a harmless virus, and that AIDS is reversible following the
termination of the causative agent.

4) Investigators from George Washington University and the National
Institutes of Health reported a case of an HIV-positive homosexual man
with ulcerative colitis who developed a severe reduction in his CD4+ T
cells counts following 9 days treatment with corticosteroid. The depletion
in CD4+ T cells number was reversed following the cessation of the
treatment with the steroid [11]. Briefly, approximately 3 weeks prior to
surgery for ulcerative colitis that was unresponsive to corticosteroids,
the patient's CD4+ T cell count was 930 cells/µL of blood and the count
fell to 313 cells/µL within 10 days of treatment with corticosteroid. Five
days postoperatively, the patient became asymptomatic and was discharged
on tapering prednisone without the use of antiretroviral agents. After
surgery, the patient's CD4+ T cells counts progressively rose. The CD4+ T
cells counts were 622 cells/µL and 843 cells/µL at 3 and 6 weeks following
the operation, respectively.

It is very clear that the reduction in CD4+ T cell counts in this
patient resulted from the treatment with glucocorticoid and not as the
result of his HIV-infection.
This case also provides very important observations that the CD4+ T cells
counts rose from 313 cells/µL to 843 cells/µL, while the viral load drop
from 31,300 RNA copies/mL to 11,400 RNA copies/mL within a few weeks
following the cessation of the glucocorticoid treatment and without the
use of the antiviral therapy. This indicates that the viral load counts
are highly influenced by the glucocorticoid treatment. Considering the
fact that the lives of millions of people are influenced by the result of
the HIV viral load test. This practice should be urgently evaluated!

My investigation also revealed that the majority of AIDS patients
suffer from metabolic and endocrine abnormalities [1]. The high
prevalence of adrenal insufficiency observed among AIDS patients provides
strong evidence that AIDS in these patients is caused by the use of
corticosteroids. The medical evidence that support my conclusions can be
found in Fauci et al. book [7]. They stated that endocrine and metabolic
abnormalities are frequently seen in HIV-infected individuals, and that
most HIV-infected individuals studied at autopsy had involvement of
adrenal glands. The most common abnormality seen in HIV-infected
individuals is hyponatremia, seen in up to 30 percent of patients. They
also stated in the same book that the presence of a low sodium level
combined with a high serum potassium level in a patient should alert one
to the possibility of adrenocortical insufficiency as seen following
prolonged administration of excess glucocorticoids [7]. However, Fauci and
his colleagues have not considered the involvement of corticosteroids in
the pathogenesis of AIDS in risk groups.

Causes and pathogenesis of AIDS in Africa:

In Africa, AIDS is caused by severe starvation. An individual
suffering from severe starvation usually loses up to 90% of his or her
thymus size along with the capacity of the functions of their immune
system. The release of endogenous cortisol plays a major role in the
pathogenesis of AIDS in people suffering from malnutrition. In starvation,
cortisol, a hormone released from the adrenal glands, is required for the
conversion of fat and protein to glucose in the liver. Glucose is used as
energy by the heart, brain, and other organs and without the endogenous
cortisol, human beings are unable to survive very long without food. Any
person who suffers from severe starvation has AIDS regardless if the
person is HIV-positive or HIV-negative. Fortunately, AIDS in people who
are suffering from severe starvation is reversible with proper nutrition
and supportive medical care as shown by the following studies.

1. In a study involving 110 malnourished children, the thymic area
was found to be 20% of the size in healthy children. The size of the
thymus in these children was increased from 20% of normal to 107% of
normal following 9 weeks of proper feeding [12].

2. The reversal of the reduction in CD4+T cell count in HIV+ pregnant
women following proper feeding was also reported by Fawzi et al. [13].
Briefly, the influence of diet on T cells counts in peripheral blood of
1,075 HIV-infected pregnant women who had poor nutritional status was
studied. The CD4+ T cell counts of the women who received multivitamins
increased from 424/µL to 596/µL during six months of proper feeding.

The prevalence of KS, lymphoma, lymphadenitis, and tuberculosis in
Africa is similar or even higher than those observed in homosexual men,
drug users, and AIDS patients in the United States and Europe [1].
However, AIDS in Africa occurs almost equally in males and females because
starvation affects both sexes equally. For example, Sibanda and Stanczuk
reviewed all histopathology reports of lymph node biopsy submitted to the
Histopathology unit in Harare, Zimbabwe in the period of January 1988 to
June 1990. The most common diseases in the 2,194 lymph node specimens
were: non-specific hyperplasia (33%), tuberculous lymphadenitis (27%);
metastases (12%), Kaposi’s sarcoma (9%); and lymphomas (7%). Kaposi’s
sarcoma (KS) involving the lymph nodes was reported in 176 (9%). In
children, the prevalence of KS was higher in children under 5 years than
in 6-15 year bracket. Approximately two thirds (65%) of all patients with
KS were aged between 20 and 40 years [14].

AZT and Protease Inhibitors are poisons and not cures:

I reviewed the designs and the results of numerous AZT and protease
inhibitors clinical trials and found that the results of these studies
clearly show that these agents are poisons and not a cure for AIDS. AZT
causes severe bone marrow depression and reduces white blood cell counts
including T cells. It is very toxic to the stem cells in bone marrow (the
source of T and B lymphocytes) and to fast growing tissues such as
embryonic and fetal tissues. Protease inhibitors and other toxic
antiviral agents cause wide spread systemic damage in liver, kidneys,
pancreas, and other organs and should not be given to any human being [1,
2].

The following is a brief description of the results of Fischl et al
AZT clinical trial that clearly demonstrates the toxicity of AZT in humans
and invalidate the claim that AZT has cured people. They gave AZT to 524
subjects who had a first episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia [15].
These subjects received AZT in either a dose of 250 mg taken orally every
four hours (n=262) or a dose of 200 mg taken orally every four hours for
four weeks and thereafter 100 mg taken every four hours (n=262). In this
study, additional AIDS-defining opportunistic infections developed in 429
subjects (82%) in the AZT treated groups. Furthermore, the neutrophil
counts declined to less than 34% of baseline in 230 subjects; the
hemoglobin levels declined to less than 66% of baseline in 178 subjects;
and 134 subjects received red-cell transfusions. 183 subjects (35%) were
withdrawn from AZT therapy because of toxic reactions such as severe
anemia and neutropenia. At 24 months of treatment, the mortality rates
were 66% and 73% in the low and standard AZT doses, respectively.

The AIDS establishment has overlooked medical facts that show HIV
does not cause AIDS:

My review of the medical literature relating to the AIDS epidemic has
raised many questions about the way that the CDC, the FDA, Anthony Fauci,
and the AIDS establishment have dealt with the AIDS epidemic for the past
22 years. As a toxicologist and pathologist, my review of the medical
evidence has led me to believe that these agencies have not used standard
medical procedures to solve the AIDS epidemic. In fact, their actions have
contributed tremendously to the increase of the AIDS epidemic worldwide by
giving the wrong treatment recommendations. The correct approach for
investigating the cause(s) of any disease is by evaluating the medical
evidence that considers infectious, chemical, nutritional, metabolic, and
other biological and environmental factors. It appears that Fauci and the
CDC have taken the exact-opposite approach. They have called well-
established symptoms and lesions resulting from the use of drugs and
medications; severe starvation; and opportunistic infections as HIV
diseases. The following few clinical examples that show the CDC and
Fauci’s treatment recommendations cause AIDS.

1) The CDC and Fauci have considered peripheral neuropathy and
thrombocytopenia as AIDS-indicators illnesses [7]. They justified their
actions by stating that autoimmune diseases induced by HIV cause these
illnesses. These patients are usually treated with high doses of
glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressant agents that cause AIDS. The
CDC and Fauci’s assumptions are not valid because alcohol, illicit drugs,
and many medications used by individuals in risk groups cause peripheral
neuropathy and/or thrombocytopenia. In addition, AIDS and autoimmune
disease are mutually exclusive illnesses. Patients with AIDS suffer from a
depression in the immune system functions, while patients with autoimmune
disease suffer from hyperactive immune system.

The common drugs that cause thrombocytopenia include:
chemotherapeutic agents, alcohol, myelosuppressive drugs, thiazide
diuretics, estrogens, antibiotics, sedative, hypnotics, anticonvulsants,
aspirin, sulfa drug, digitoxin, phenytoin, gold salts, heparin,
sulfnamides and trimethoprim (the treatment for Pneumocyst carrinii).
Fauci et al. described the treatment for thrombocytopenia as follows: 60
mg of prednisone is administered for 4 to 6 weeks and then decreased
slowly for over another a few weeks [7]. Cyclophosphamide, azathioprine,
and AZT are also among the drugs recommended for the treatment of
thrombocytopenia.

This treatment for thrombocytopenia can cause AIDS as shown in the
following case: An 18-year-old woman with thrombocytopenia was treated
with a steroid for 42 months. She subsequently developed Kaposi’s sarcoma
that spread to the spleen [16].

2) The treatment described on page 1463 of Fauci’s book for patients
suffering from lung fibrosis (LF) can also cause AIDS [7]. The long-term
use of crack cocaine causes lung fibrosis [1]. The treatment for LF
includes: “A trial of oral prednisone is begun at a dose of 1mg/kg daily
and continued for about 8 weeks. Should the disease not respond or be
progressive, additional immunosuppression with cyclophosphomide should be
considered. The objective is to reduce the white blood cell count to
approximately half the normal baseline value, causing a distinct drop in
the total lymphocyte count. However, a minimum count of 1000 PMNs/µL
should be maintained”. At these dose levels, the CD4+T cells count in the
peripheral blood of the treated individual is expected to be <300/µL
which meets the definition for AIDS set by CDC.

3) Pneumocystis carinii (PC) is one of the opportunistic infection
classified by the CDC as an AIDS-defining disease. Glucocorticoids are
also one of the agents described by Fauci et al. as treatment for PCP [7,
page 1825]. They stated, “Adjunct glucocorticoid therapy should be started
as soon as possible after the diagnosis is made, preferably no later than
36 to 72 h”. It is completely puzzling to me to see glucocorticoid
compounds, which cause severe depression in T cell counts and the
functions of the immune systems, are used to treat PCP and other
opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. This approach is scientifically
unjustified.

4) Also, sulfnamides and trimethoprim are used in the treatment of
PCP. These drugs cause severe hematological complications, including
agranulocytosis, hemolytic and megaloblastic anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
As you may recall that the CDC considers thrombocytopenia an AIDS-
indicator disease. It is also treated with glucocorticoid at dosage levels
that cause AIDS as previously explained. It seems that the possibilities
of inducing AIDS in patients with medications are endless.

Furthermore, A. Fauci, the CDC, and the AIDS establishment have also
overlooked a list of events presented to them. These medical events
clearly show that agents and factors other than HIV cause the symptoms,
and the pathology observed in people with AIDS. Below is a list of some of
these medical events to illustrate my points.

1) The HIV-hypothesis states that HIV causes AIDS by selective
killing of the CD4+ T cells because these cells have a special receptor on
their membrane that bind with HIV. I have not found any truth to support
this assumption. HIV provirus has been found in CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T
cells, and B cells lymphocytes in the lymph nodes of HIV infected patients
and its ability to infect cells is not restricted to cells that have CD4
receptor as predicted by the HIV-hypothesis [1].

2) People with AIDS usually suffer from severe loss of CD4 T cells,
CD8 T cells, and other white blood cells in the peripheral blood and
lymphatic tissues. The lymph nodes of AIDS patients show atrophy and the
loss of all components that include T cells, B cells, and connective
tissues. These abnormalities resemble those found in patients treated with
high doses of corticosteroids and/or other immunosuppressant agents and
people suffering from severe malnutrition. Fauci’s study also supports my
observations [17]. He and his colleagues examined lymph nodes from HIV-
positive AIDS patients and found that all types of lymphocytes were
depleted. They stated that “apoptosis was not restricted only to CD4+ T
cells; both B cells and CD8+ T cells were found to undergo apoptosis. They
also stated that the increased intensity of the apoptotic phenomenon in
HIV infection is independent of the progression of HIV activities and the
levels of viral load”.

3) Physicians reported to the CDC many cases of individuals with AIDS
but were not infected with HIV. Fauci and the CDC had not investigated the
cause(s) of AIDS in these people but rather described this condition as
“idiopathic CD4+ T cells lymphocytopenia” (ICL). They stated that ICL is
different from AIDS because the ICL patients also have low CD8+ T cells
and B cells counts in addition to low CD4+ T cells counts [7]. However,
in the same book, they stated that people with AIDS also have low B cells
and CD8+ T cells counts. These statements are contradictory. My review of
the literature revealed that all patients with AIDS suffer from severe
deficiencies of T cells as well B cells.

4) There are thousands of healthy people who have been infected with
HIV for more than 10 years. However, they remained asymptomatic. Fauci and
the CDC refer to these people as “long-term non-progressors”. The
proponents of the HIV-hypothesis should explain to us why people are
living in perfect health for 10 years or more with HIV, if HIV is supposed
to be a killer virus. The logical explanation of this mystery is that
these people are not using drugs and/or taking toxic medications.

5) The majority of AIDS patients usually suffer from metabolic and
endocrine abnormalities [1, 7]. The high prevalence of adrenal
insufficiency observed among AIDS patients provides strong evidence that
AIDS in these patients is likely to be caused by the use of
corticosteroids.

The HIV-hypothesis has misled physicians from all over the world to
prescribe toxic medications to healthy HIV-positive people and people with
AIDS. This has resulted in death of millions of people for the last twenty
years. It has also influenced physicians to overlook the health problems
associated with the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and the adverse
reactions to medications used to treat these conditions with the incorrect
medications. The classic examples are peripheral neuropathy and
thrombocytopenia. These illnesses treated with immunosuppressant agents at
high doses that cause AIDS, are based on the presumption that these
illnesses are caused by HIV as autoimmune diseases. I hope that the
medical community will take an action to re-evaluate the HIV-hypothesis
and to learn about the factual causes of AIDS.

References

[1] Al-Bayati, MA. Get All The Facts: HIV does not cause AIDS. Toxi-
Health International, Dixon, CA 1999 [http://www.toxi-health.com].

[2] Al-Bayati MA. Do Not Give Your Soldiers Toxic Drugs: HIV Does Not
Cause AIDS. The British Medical May 4, 2002
[http://bmj.com/cgi/eletters/324/7342/870/e#21896]

[3] Al-Bayati, MA. Stop Giving People Toxic Drugs: HIV Does Not Cause
AIDS. The British Medical April 4, 2002
[http://bmj.com/cgi/content/full/324/7340/757#responses]

[4] Al-Bayati, MA. Keep The Dentist Working: HIV Does Not Cause AIDS.
The British Medical Journal, March 15, 2002
[http://bmj.com/cgi/eletters/324/7337/564#20541].

[5] Al-Bayati, MA. AIDS in Africa is caused by Starvation and
Medications. The British Medical Journal, March 7, 2002
[http://bmj.com/cgi/eletters/324/7335/446/a#20389].

[6] Al-Bayati, MA. HIV Does Not Cause AIDS. The British Medical
Journal, January 30, 2002 [http://bmj.com/cgi/eletters/324/7331/237].

[7] Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isslbacher KJ, Wilson, JD, Martin JB,
Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL. Harrison's Principles of Internal
Medicine. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York USA, ed. 14, 1998

[8] O’Donnell AE, Mappin FG, Sebo TJ, Tazelaar H.: Interstitial
pneumonitis associated with “crack” cocaine abuse. Chest 100(4): 1155-7,
1991

[9] Schottstaedt MW, Hurd ER, Stone MJ: Kaposi’s sarcoma in
rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 82(5): 1021-6, 1987

[10] Sharpstone DR, Duggal A, Gazzard BG. Inflammatory bowel disease
in individuals
sero-positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. Eur. J. Gastroentrol.
Hepatol 1996;
8:575-8

[11] Silver S, Wahl SM, Orkin BA, Orenstein JM. Changes in
circulating levels of HIV, CD4, and tissue expression of HIV in a patient
with recent-onset ulcerative colitis treated by surgery, Case report.
Journal of Human Virology 1999; 2:52-7

[12] Chevalier P, Sevilla R, Sejas E, zalles L, Belmonte G, Parent,
G. Immune recovery of malnourished children takes longer than nutritional
recovery: implications for treatment and discharge. J. Trop Perdiatr 1998;
44:304-7

[13] Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, et al. Randomized trial
effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in
HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. The Lancet 1998; 351:1447-1482

[14] Sibanda, E.N., Stanczuk, G. Lymph node pathology in Zimbabwe: a
review of 2194 specimens. Q. J. Med. 1993; 86(12):811-7.

[15] Fischl MA, Corette BP, Pettinelli C, et al. A randomized
controlled trial of a reduced daily dose of zidovudine in patients with
the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The New England Journal of
Medicine 1990; 323: 1009-14.

[16] Akmal SN, Wahab YA.: Kaposi’s sarcoma following long-term
steroid therapy. Malays J. Pathol 1989; 11:65-68, 1989

[17] Muro-Cacho CA, Pantaleo G, Fauci AS. Analysis of apoptosis in
lymph nodes of HIV-infected persons. Intensity of apoptosis correlates
with the general state of activation of the lymphoid tissue and not with
stage of disease or viral burden. J. Immunol 1995; 154:5555-5566

Competing interests:
None declared

Competing interests: No competing interests

13 December 2003
Mohammed Ali Al-Bayati
Toxicologist & Pathologist
Toxi-Health International, 150 Bloom Dr., Dixon, CA 95620, USA