Table 2

 Absolute rates and age and multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of all cause and cardiovascular mortality by categories of average cumulative intake of total and dietary calcium

VariablesCalcium intake (mg/day)
<600600-9991000-1399≥1400
Analyses based on dietary calcium intake
Person years at risk50 150743 403292 8998428
All causes:
 No of deaths59780113208128
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)11.9 (11.0 to 12.9)10.8 (10.5 to 11.0)11.0 (10.6 to 11.3)15.2 (12.8 to 18.1)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.60 (1.47 to 1.74)1.00 (reference)0.93 (0.90 to 0.97)1.35 (1.13 to 1.60)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.38 (1.27 to 1.51)1.00 (reference)1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)1.40 (1.17 to 1.67)
Cardiovascular disease:
 No of deaths2192576102542
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)4.4 (3.8 to 5.0)3.5 (3.3 to 3.6)3.5 (3.3 to 3.7)5.0 (3.7 to 6.7)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.90 (1.65 to 2.18)1.00 (reference)0.93 (0.87 to 1.00)1.37 (1.01 to 1.86)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.63 (1.42 to 1.87)1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.94 to 1.09)1.49 (1.09 to 2.02)
Ischaemic heart disease:
 No of deaths113127451530
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)2.3 (1.9 to 2.7)1.7 (1.6 to 1.8)1.8 (1.6 to 1.9)3.6 (2.5 to 5.1)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.85 (1.53 to 2.25)1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.87 to 1.07)2.01 (1.40 to 2.88)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.65 (1.36 to 2.01)1.00 (reference)1.03 (0.93 to 1.15)2.14 (1.48 to 3.09)
Stroke:
 No of deaths577402976
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)1.1 (0.9 to 1.5)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)0.7 (0.3 to 1.6)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.77 (1.35 to 2.32)1.00 (reference)0.94 (0.82 to 1.07)0.68 (0.31 to 1.52)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.50 (1.14 to 1.97)1.00 (reference)1.02 (0.89 to 1.17)0.73 (0.33 to 1.65)
Analyses based on total calcium intake
Person years at risk49 195705 006313 62827 051
All causes:
 No of deaths58676033405350
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)11.9 (11.0 to 12.9)10.8 (10.5 to 11.0)10.9 (10.5 to 11.2)12.9 (11.7 to 14.4)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.59 (1.46 to 1.73)1.00 (reference)0.86 (0.82 to 0.89)0.72 (0.65 to 0.80)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.40 (1.28 to 1.52)1.00 (reference)1.03 (0.99 to 1.07)1.40 (1.25 to 1.57)
Cardiovascular disease:
 No of deaths21724641073108
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)4.4 (3.9 to 5.0)3.5 (3.4 to 3.6)3.4 (3.2 to 3.6)4.0 (3.3 to 4.8)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.89 (1.65 to 2.18)1.00 (reference)0.83 (0.78 to 0.90)0.67 (0.55 to 0.81)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.65 (1.43 to 1.90)1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.96 to 1.12)1.51 (1.23 to 1.84)
Ischaemic heart disease:
 No of deaths111122553363
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)2.3 (1.9 to 2.7)1.7 (1.6 to 1.8)1.7 (1.6 to 1.9)2.3 (1.8 to 3.0)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.82 (1.50 to 2.22)1.00 (reference)0.86 (0.78 to 0.95)0.83 (0.65 to 1.08)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.65 (1.35 to 2.01)1.00 (reference)1.05 (0.94 to 1.16)1.90 (1.45 to 2.49)
Stroke:
 No of deaths5770931321
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)1.2 (0.9 to 1.5)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)0.8 (0.5 to 1.2)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.78 (1.36 to 2.34)1.00 (reference)0.84 (0.73 to 0.96)0.44 (0.29 to 0.68)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.53 (1.17 to 2.01)1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.90 to 1.19)0.96 (0.61 to 1.50)

Calcium intake by categories refers to cumulative average intake in cohort.

*Adjusted for age, total energy and vitamin D intake, a healthy dietary pattern, body mass index, height, living alone, educational level, physical activity level, smoking status, use of calcium containing supplements, and Charlson’s comorbidity index.