Table 3

 Absolute rates and age and multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of all cause mortality by categories of average cumulative intake of dietary calcium by calcium supplement use

VariablesDietary calcium intake (mg/day)
<600600-9991000-1399≥1400
No supplement use:
 No of deaths58073242842112
 Person years at risk44 736617 437237 1087067
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)13.0 (12.0 to 14.1)11.9 (11.6 to 12.1)12.0 (11.6-12.4)15.8 (13.2-19.1)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.53 (1.41 to 1.67)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.43 (1.32 to 1.56)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.94 (0.90 to 0.99)1.17 (0.97 to 1.41)
Use of any type of calcium containing supplement:
 No of deaths1768736616
 Person years at risk5414125 96655 7911361
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)3.1 (2.0 to 5.1)5.5 (5.1 to 5.9)6.6 (5.9 to 7.3)11.8 (7.2 to 19.2)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)1.45 (0.90 to 2.35)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.97 (0.85 to 1.10)1.85 (1.13 to 3.03)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)1.17 (0.72 to 1.89)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.91 (0.80 to 1.04)1.51 (0.91 to 2.50)
Use of calcium tablets
 No of deaths22251077
 Person years at risk182032 12013 506380
 Rate per 1000 person years (95% CI)1.1 (0.3 to 4.4)7.0 (6.1 to 8.0)7.9 (6.6 to 9.6)18.4 (8.8 to 38.6)
 Age adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)0.59 (0.15 to 2.36)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.87 (0.69 to 1.10)2.65 (1.25 to 5.64)
 Adjusted hazard ratio* (95% CI)0.49 (0.12 to 2.01)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.78 (0.61 to 0.99)2.57 (1.19 to 5.55)

Calcium intake by categories refers to cumulative average intake in cohort.

*Adjusted for age, total energy and vitamin D intake, a healthy dietary pattern, body mass index, height, living alone, educational level, physical activity level, smoking status, and Charlson’s comorbidity index.