Table 5

 Mortality outcomes according to longitudinal changes in dietary fatty acid intake

Diet variableModel§Mortality
All causeCardiovascular diseaseCoronary heart disease
Hazard ratio (95% CI)PHazard ratio (95% CI)PHazard ratio (95% CI)P
LA intervention group only (n=207)*
 PUFA (LA specific; per 5 en% increase)11.31 (1.00 to 1.71)0.051.37 (1.04 to 1.79)0.031.20 (0.90 to 1.59)0.22
21.29 (1.00 to 1.67)0.051.35 (1.03 to 1.75)0.031.21 (0.91 to 1.61)0.19
 SFA (per 5 en% increase)10.77 (0.52 to 1.13)0.180.77 (0.52 to 1.13)0.180.74 (0.50 to 1.11)0.15
20.81 (0.56 to 1.19)0.290.82 (0.56 to 1.21)0.310.78 (0.52 to 1.16)0.22
 LA:SFA ratio (per 1 unit increase)11.51 (1.00 to 2.30)0.051.59 (1.04 to 2.43)0.031.44 (0.93 to 2.23)0.11
21.55 (1.01 to 2.36)0.041.62 (1.05 to 2.48)0.031.47 (0.94 to 2.29)0.09
Control group only (n=222)†
 PUFA (unspecified; per 5 en% increase)11.08 (0.71 to 1.66)0.711.07 (0.69 to 1.67)0.751.00 (0.62 to 1.61)0.99
21.10 (0.73 to 1.65)0.651.09 (0.72 to 1.66)0.681.02(0.65 to 1.60)0.93
 SFA (per 5 en% increase)10.77 (0.48 to 1.24)0.280.89 (0.54 to 1.47)0.650.98 (0.58 to 1.65)0.93
20.76 (0.48 to 1.21)0.250.86 (0.53 to 1.39)0.540.95 (0.57 to 1.58)0.84
 PUFA:SFA ratio (per 1 unit increase)10.84 (0.39 to 1.80)0.660.78 (0.36 to 1.70)0.530.56 (0.27 to 1.18)0.13
21.05 (0.56 to 1.97)0.881.00 (0.52 to 1.93)0.990.77 (0.39 to 1.52)0.46
Whole sample (n=429)‡
 PUFA (unspecified; per 5 en% increase)11.26 (1.04 to 1.52)0.021.29 (1.07 to 1.57)<0.011.19 (0.97 to 1.47)0.09
21.31 (1.09 to 1.58)<0.011.35 (1.12 to 1.63)<0.011.26 (1.02 to 1.54)0.03
 SFA (per 5 en% increase)10.74 (0.57 to 0.97)0.030.77 (0.58 to 1.01)0.060.77 (0.58 to 1.03)0.08
20.70 (0.53 to 0.91)<0.010.72 (0.54 to 0.95)0.020.72 (0.54 to 0.97)0.03
 PUFA:SFA ratio (per 1 unit increase)11.35 (1.01 to 1.80)0.041.39 (1.03 to 1.87)0.031.27 (0.93 to 1.73)0.14
21.53 (1.14 to 2.05)<0.011.58 (1.17 to 2.13)<0.011.44 (1.04 to 1.98)0.03

En%=percentage of food energy. Analysis includes 429 patients with diet data at baseline. Missing follow-up data were imputed for three patients with baseline data who died within two months after randomization; median values were used for their respective group assignment.

*No of deaths: 35 (all cause), 34 (cardiovascular), 32 (coronary heart disease).

†No of deaths: 28 (all cause), 26 (cardiovascular), 24 (coronary heart disease).

‡No of deaths: 63 (all cause), 60 (cardiovascular), 56 (coronary heart disease).

§Model 1: crude model. Model 2: adjusted for age, dietary cholesterol intake, baseline body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and marital status.