Table 4

 Models of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution implementation and unintentional opioid related overdose death rates in 19 communities* in Massachusetts, 2002-09

Cumulative enrollments per 100 000 populationRate ratioAdjusted rate ratio† (95% CI)P value
Absolute model:
 No implementationReferenceReference
 Low implementation: 1-100 enrollments0.930.73 (0.57 to 0.91)<0.01
 High implementation: >100 enrollments0.820.54 (0.39 to 0.76)<0.01
Relative model:
 No implementationReferenceReference
 Low implementation: <median 0.850.71 (0.57 to 0.90)<0.01
 High implementation: >median1.000.78 (0.60 to 1.01)0.06

*Geographically distinct cities and towns.

†Adjusted for city/town population rates of age under 18, male, race or ethnicity (Hispanic, white, black, other), below poverty level, medically supervised inpatient withdrawal treatment, methadone treatment, Bureau of Substance Abuse Services funded buprenorphine treatment, prescriptions to doctor shoppers (individuals with schedule II opioid prescriptions from ≥4 prescribers and filled prescriptions at ≥4 pharmacies in 12 month period), and year.