Table 2

 Patient reported outcomes and mechanical knee stability measures at five years and change between two and five years for full analysis set (n=120)

OutcomeEarly ACL reconstruction
(n=61)
Delayed optional ACL reconstruction
(n=59)
Mean difference (95% CI)P value
Mean (95% CI) follow-up after randomisation (months) 60 (59 to 61)59 (57 to 60)1.2 (−0.6 to 3.0)0.06
Patient reported outcomes at 5 years
Mean (95% CI) KOOS*:
 KOOS480 (76 to 84)82 (77 to 86)−1.5 (−7.4 to 4.4)0.45
 Pain91 (88 to 94)91 (88 to 94)−0.3 (−4.6 to 4.0)0.73
 Symptoms83 (78 to 87)87 (83 to 91)−4.4 (−10.2 to 1.4)0.12
 Activities of daily living95 (93 to 98)97 (95 to 99)−1.5 (−4.3 to 1.4)0.38
 Sport and recreation76 (70 to 82)79 (73 to 86)−3.3 (−11.7 to 5.2)0.23
 Knee related QOL71 (66 to 76)69 (63 to 75)1.8 (−6.2 to 9.8)0.89
Mean (95% CI) SF-36‡:
 Physical component85 (81 to 89)84 (80 to 89)0.9 (−4.9 to 6.7)0.78
 Mental component87 (84 to 91)85 (84 to 91)2.8 (−2.7 to 8.3)0.34
Median (interquartile range) Tegner activity scale§4 (2.5-7)4 (2-7)0.1 (−0.8-1.1)0.74
No (%) active at pre-injury Tegner activity scale level¶14 (23)12 (20)2.6 (−12.4-17.6)‡0.73
Mechanical knee stability at 5 years
No (%) normal Lachman test**45/58 (76)19/58 (33)43.5 (27.0 to 60.1)††<0.001
No (%) normal pivot shift test‡‡45/58 (76)23/58 (40)36.6 (19.7 to 53.5)††<0.001
Change in patient reported outcomes (5 minus 2 years)
Mean (95% CI) KOOS:
 KOOS44 (1 to 8)5 (1 to 10)−1.3 (−6.7 to 4.2)0.38
 Pain4 (1 to 7)4 (0 to 7)0.3 (−3.9 to 4.4)0.86
 Symptoms4 (0 to 8)4 (0 to 8)0.0 (−5.5 to 5.6)0.87
 Activities of daily living2 (0 to 4)2 (0 to 4)−0.2 (−3.0 to 2.6)0.76
 Sport and recreation5 (1 to 10)8 (2 to 14)−3.5 (−11.6 to 4.7)0.27
 Knee related QOL4 (0 to 8)6 (0 to 12)−2.0 (−9.2 to 5.1)0.35
Mean (95% CI) SF-36:
 Physical component4 (−1 to 8) (n=60)6 (3 to 10)−1.7 (−6.9 to 3.5)0.12
 Mental component−1 (−5 to 3)1 (−3 to 4)−1.7 (−6.9 to 3.5)0.52

ACL=anterior cruciate ligament; KOOS=knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score; QOL=quality of life.

*KOOS ranges from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better results.12, 13

†Includes four KOOS subscales: pain, symptoms, function in sports and recreation, and knee related quality of life; scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better results.7

‡Scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better results.14

§Assesses activity level with specific emphasis on knee; scores range from 1 (least strenuous activity) to 10 (high knee demanding activity on professional sports level).15

¶Patients with score at five years that was same as or higher than pre-injury score.

**Assesses anteroposterior laxity of knee at rest in semiflexed position; results range from 0 (normal laxity) to 3 (severely increased laxity); data include knees with normal laxity.

††95% confidence interval for percentage.

‡‡Assesses rotational stability of knee at rest; results range from 0 (normal stability) to 3 (severely increased instability); data include knees with normal stability.