|Bantle 199248||Randomised crossover trial of isocaloric metabolically controlled dietary interventions||12 men and women with type 2 diabetes||High fructose, high carbohydrate diet (55% of energy)||High starch, low sugars, high carbohydrate diet (55% of energy)||Plasma glucose, urinary glucose, lipids, postprandial triglycerides, body weight||4 weeks per treatment||20% of total energy/day from sucrose v <3% of total energy/day from fructose|
|Bantle 199349||Randomised crossover trial of isocaloric metabolically controlled dietary interventions||12 men and women with type 2 diabetes; 6 with type 1 diabetes||High sucrose, high carbohydrate diet (55% of energy)||High starch, low sugars, high carbohydrate diet (55% of energy)||Plasma glucose, urinary glucose, lipids, postprandial triglycerides, body weight||4 weeks per treatment||19% of total energy/day from sucrose v <3% of total energy/day from sucrose|
|Grigoresco 198850||Randomised crossover comparing isocaloric, free living diets||8 well controlled adults with type 2 diabetes||Isoglucidic diet replacing 30g/d starch with 30g/d fructose||Starch diet||Glycaemic control, glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, uric acid, lipids, body weight||2 months||30 g/day of fructose v 30 g/day of starch|
|Koivisto 199351||Double blind, randomised, isocaloric, hospital inpatient, crossover study||10 men and women with type 2 diabetes||High carbohydrate diet supplemented with crystalline fructose||High carbohydrate diet||Glycaemic control, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, insulin sensitivity||4 weeks||20% of total energy (45-65 g/day) from fructose replacing complex carbohydrate|
|Malerbi 199652||Crossover trial of isocaloric, weight maintaining diets||16 free living men and women with type 2 diabetes||(1) High fructose diet; (2) high sucrose diet||High starch diet||Metabolic and B cell secretion effects||28 days per treatment with 14 day washout periods||(1) 63 g/day of fructose and 5 g/day of sucrose; (2) 3 g/day of fructose and 79 g/day of sucrose; control: 3 g/day of fructose and 14 g/day of sucrose|
|Mann 1972b53||Randomised crossover trial of hospital treatments||9 normolipidemic men with history of non-metabolic health condition in previous year||Typical Western diet with about 140 g/day of sucrose||Typical Western diet with isocaloric replacement of sucrose with complex carbohydrate||Serum lipids||14 days||140 g/day in the intervention group, which was replaced with starch in the control group|
|Mann 197354||Clinical metabolic inpatient crossover trial of isocaloric, controlled energy diets||9 men (7 with chronic neurological disorders, 2 apparently healthy)||High sucrose, Western diet||Normal sucrose Western diet||Serum lipids||14 days||160 g/day v 80 g/day of sucrose (difference of 17% TE)*|
|Osei 198955||Randomised crossover study||13 men and women with type 2 diabetes (outpatients)||Weight maintaining, diabetic, high carbohydrate (50% of energy), high fructose diet||Isocaloric, weight maintaining, diabetic diet, high in complex carbohydrates (50% of energy)||Serum glucose, HbA1c, lipids, serum uric acid, serum lactic acid, weight||6 months per treatment||60 g/day of crystalline fructose replacing complex carbohydrate|
|Peterson 198656||Randomised crossover trial of two 6 week diets||23 non-obese men and women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, otherwise healthy||High sucrose diet (same as for control diet but 45 g/day sucrose replacing starch)||High fibre, high CHO diet||Glycaemic control, lipids||6 weeks per treatment||45 g/day of sucrose replaced with 45 g/day of complex carbohydrate|
|Santacroce 199057||Randomised crossover study comparing two isocaloric diets||12 adults with insulin dependent diabetes||Typical Italian, high CHO, low fat, diabetic diet supplemented with sucrose||Typical Italian, high CHO, low fat, low sucrose diabetic diet||Glycaemic control, lipids||2 months per treatment||30 g/day of sucrose replaced with 30 g of starch|
|Swanson 199258||Randomised crossover design feeding trial comparing isoenergetic diets||14 healthy, normal to overweight men and women||High fructose (20% TE) diet||Low fructose (<3% TE), high starch diet||Metabolic variables including HbA1c, glycaemic responses, serum lactate, lipids||28 days per treatment||100 g/day v 14 g/day of fructose†|
CHO=carbohydrates; TE=total energy intake; HbA1c=glycated haemoglobin.
*Treatments were not given in a randomised order.
†Carbohydrates differed only in the proportions of starch and fructose.