Table 3

 Characteristics of randomised trials examining the effect of increasing intake of free sugars on measures of body fatness in adults

StudyMethodsParticipantsDietOutcomesStudy durationDoseNotes
InterventionControl
Aeberli 201147Randomised crossover trial29 healthy normal weight men aged 20-50 years, living in and around Zurich, SwitzerlandHigh sugars (fructose, glucose, or sucrose), providing 80 g/dayModerate sugars (fructose or glucose), providing 40 g/dayLipid and glucose metabolism (focusing on LDL particle size in particular), inflammatory markers, weight change3 weeks per treatment, 4 week washout between treatments80 g/day added sugars v 40 g/day. Difference of 6.6% TEStudy involved 6 treatments. Data were aggregated for the intake comparisons between moderate and high sugars groups
Brynes 200326Randomised crossover trial17 healthy middle aged men with one or more cardiac risk factorsHigh carbohydrate, high sucrose diet, providing additional 90 g/day of sucroseHigh carbohydrate, high glycaemic index dietWeight change, fasting lipids, postprandial glucose, insulin and lipids, HOMA insulin sensitivity24 days per treatment132 g/day v 46 g/day of sucrose. Difference of 14% TEEnergy intake was intended to be consistent between treatments
Marckmann 200032Randomised crossover trial20 post-obese adults; controls matched by age, height, and weightAd libitum, high sucrose dietAd libitum high starch dietWeight change, change in fat mass2 weeks per treatment23% v 2.5% total energy sucrose. Difference of 20.5% TE
Poppitt 200234Randomised controlled trial28 overweight adults with three or more metabolic risk factorsAd libitum, low fat, high simple carbohydrate dietAd libitum, low fat, high complex carbohydrate dietWeight change, change in energy intake, waist circumference, BMI, lipids6 monthsIncrease in simple carbohydrate of 87 g/day v 2 g/day. Difference of 14% TE13 participants also included in the CARMEN study39
Raben 200235Randomised controlled trial41 healthy overweight adults (BMI 25-30) aged 20-50 yearsAd libitum diet supplemented with sucrose containing foods and beverages providing 28% of total energyAd libitum diet supplemented with artificially sweetened foods and beveragesDietary intake, weight, fat mass, fat free mass10 weeksIncrease of 105 g/day sucrose v decrease of 15 g/day. Difference of 23% TE
Reid 200738Randomised controlled dietary intervention133 normal weight women aged 20-55 yearsAd libitum diet with 1 L/day of sugar sweetened beveragesAd libitum diet with 1 L/day of artificially sweetened beveragesMood, weight change, dietary intake4 weeksSugar sweetened drinks provided 105 g/day of sucrose. Difference of about 20% TEWeight change data extracted from figures in article
Reid 201037Randomised controlled dietary intervention53 overweight women (BMI 25-30) aged 20-55 yearsAd libitum diet with 1 L/day of sugar sweetened beveragesAd libitum diet with 1 L/day of artificially sweetened beveragesMood, weight change, dietary intake4 weeksSugar sweetened drinks provided 105 g/day of sucrose. Difference of about 20% TEWeight change data extracted from figures in article
Szanto 196943Crossover trial19 apparently healthy menHigh sucrose diet (substituting sucrose for starch)Low sucrose diet (10 g/day)Glycaemic responses, insulin responses, lipids, weight2 weeks per treatment, 2 week washouts438 g/day v 10 g/day of sucrose. Difference of >20% TE2 week washout sufficient to restore weight to baseline values
Tordoff 199044Randomised crossover trial30 healthy, normal weight adultsAd libitum diet supplemented with 1135 g/day of HFCS-sweetened sodaAd libitum diet supplemented with 1135 g/day of aspartame sweetened sodaDietary intake, weight, height, dietary restraint3 weeks per treatmentDrinks provided 133 g/day v 1 g/day high fructose corn syrup. Difference of 18% TE
Werner 198445Randomised crossover trial12 adults with radiolucent gallstones and bile supersaturated with cholesterol, but with normal liver function, insulin and glucose statusAd libitum, high sucrose (>100g/day), fibre depleted dietAd libitum, low sucrose, fibre depleted dietWeight, dietary intakes, bile, cholesterol saturation index, bilary secretion rates, bile acid pool, bilary lipids, blood lipids, fasting plasma glucose6 weeks per treatment112 g/day v 16 g/day of refined sugar. Difference of 18% TE

HFCS=high fructose corn syrup; LDL=low density lipoprotein; HOMA=homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity; TE=total energy intake.