Table 3

 Rate ratio of acute kidney injury associated with exposure to current double or triple therapy combination according to half life of NSAID and duration of use. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise

Current use*Cases (n=2215)Controls (n=21 993)Rate ratio (95% CI)P for interaction
CrudeAdjusted†
Diuretics only209 (9.4)2632 (12.0)ReferenceReference
Diuretics plus NSAIDs:
 NSAID’s half life <12 hours151 (6.8)1656 (7.5)1.18 (0.95 to 1.47)1.03 (0.82 to 1.30)0.5209
 NSAID’s half life ≥12 hours5 (0.2)83 (0.4)0.74 (0.30 to 1.85)0.76 (0.30 to 1.91)
 Duration‡ ≤30 days32 (1.4)208 (1.0)1.87 (1.25 to 2.79)1.46 (0.96 to 2.24)0.0211
 Duration‡ 31-60 days26 (1.2)246 (1.1)1.32 (0.86 to 2.04)1.12 (0.71 to 1.76)
 Duration‡ 61-90 days36 (1.6)379 (1.7)1.20 (0.83 to 1.74)1.04 (0.71 to 1.53)
 Duration‡ >90 days62 (2.8)906 (4.1)0.90 (0.67 to 1.21)0.83 (0.61 to 1.13)
ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers only148 (6.7)1889 (8.6)ReferenceReference
ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers plus NSAIDs:
 NSAID’s half life <12 hours132 (6.0)1853 (8.4)0.95 (0.74 to 1.21)0.88 (0.68 to 1.14)0.7200
 NSAID’s half life ≥12 hours6 (0.3)54 (0.3)1.43 (0.60 to 3.40)1.04 (0.41 to 2.64)
 Duration‡ ≤30 days17 (0.8)195 (0.9)1.13 (0.67 to 1.91)1.13 (0.66 to 1.96)0.1149
 Duration‡ 31-60 days24 (1.1)247 (1.1)1.26 (0.80 to 1.98)1.07 (0.66 to 1.73)
 Duration‡ 61-90 days30 (1.4)390 (1.8)1.02 (0.68 to 1.54)0.93 (0.61 to 1.43)
 Duration‡ >90 days67 (3.0)1075 (4.9)0.83 (0.62 to 1.13)0.77 (0.56 to 1.06)
Diuretics plus ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers414 (18.7)2432 (11.1)ReferenceReference
Diuretics plus ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers plus NSAIDs:
 NSAID’s half life <12 hours520 (23.5)2343 (10.7)1.33 (1.15 to 1.53)1.29 (1.11 to 1.51)0.2157
 NSAID’s half life ≥12 hours24 (1.1)81 (0.4)1.73 (1.08 to 2.77)1.77 (1.07 to 2.93)
 Duration‡ ≤30 days83 (3.8)234 (1.1)2.00 (1.52 to, 2.63)1.82 (1.35 to 2.46)<.0001
 Duration‡ 31-60 days94 (4.2)309 (1.4)1.76 (1.37 to 2.27)1.63 (1.24 to 2.15)
 Duration‡ 61-90 days140 (6.3)500 (2.3)1.66 (1.34 to 2.06)1.56 (1.24 to 1.97)
 Duration‡ >90 days227 (10.3)1381 (6.3)1.00 (0.84 to 1.20)1.01 (0.84 to 1.23)

ACE=angiotensin converting enzyme; NSAID=non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

*Within 90 days before index date; current users of other antihypertensive drugs and past users (>90 days before index date) of double and triple therapy combinations are not shown but were considered in regression model.

†Adjusted for covariates listed in table 1.

‡Length of exposure to double or triple therapy combination.