Table 2

 Rate ratio of acute kidney injury associated with exposure to current double or triple therapy combination. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise

Current use*Cases (n=2215)Controls (n=21 993)Rate ratio (95% CI)
CrudeAdjusted†
Diuretics only209 (9.4)2632 (12.0)ReferenceReference
Diuretics plus NSAIDs156 (7.0)1739 (7.9)1.16 (0.93 to 1.44)1.02 (0.81 to 1.28)
ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers only148 (6.7)1889 (8.6)ReferenceReference
ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers plus NSAIDs138 (6.2)1907 (8.7)0.96 (0.75 to 1.22)0.89 (0.69 to 1.15)
Diuretics plus ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers414 (18.7)2432 (11.1)ReferenceReference
Diuretics plus ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers plus NSAIDs544 (24.6)2424 (11.0)1.34 (1.17 to 1.54)1.31 (1.12 to 1.53)

ACE=angiotensin converting enzyme; NSAID=non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

*Within 90 days before index date; current users of other antihypertensive drugs and past users (>90 days before index date) of double and triple therapy combinations are not shown but were considered in regression model.

†Adjusted for covariates listed in table 1.