Table 1

Studies included in meta-analysis in ascending order of age

StudyDesignSourceSource of information on feedingYear bornAge at blood pressure measurementNo breast fed, No bottle fedFormula type, commentsExclusive feeding groups
Cohenw4CSBorn at North Central Bronx Hospital or Newark Israel Medical Center, USAIn infancyNS55 hours7, 11NSNS
Zinnerw21CSBorn at Boston City Hospital or Womens and Infants Hospital, Rhode Island, USAIn infancyNS1-6 days154, 264NSNS
Dillonw7CSBorn at Queen Charlotte's Maternity Hospital, London, UKIn infancyNS6 days14, 6Standard formula including Baby Milk Plus, Cow and GateNS
Bernsteinw1CSBorn in Johannesburg Hospital, South AfricaIn infancy1987-86 weeks43, 39Standard formula (>10 mmol/l sodium content)Yes, exclusively breast fed or formula fed
Schachterw17CBorn at a large obstetric and gynaecological hospital, USAMaternal records in infancyNS6 months30, 141Not knownNS
Pomeranzw14CBorn in Meir General Hospital, IsraelIn infancyNS6 months7, 31Standard formula diluted with mineral water or tap waterNS
Boultonw2CSBorn in Queen Victoria's Hospital, seen at Adelaide Children's Hospital, AustraliaIn infancy1976-91 year14, 47Formula feed including cow milk, lactogen, proprietary simulated breast milk.Unknown, breast fed at 3-12 months, artificially fed from <3 months
Zemanw20CSBorn at Czech Children's Hospital, Prague, Czech RepublicIn infancyNS8-26 months42, 13Formula feed dried cows' milkNS
Baranowski13CSStudies of Children Activity and Nutrition in Texas, USAParental interview1981-33-4 years60, 185Standard formula including Enfamil, Similac, SMAYes, breast fed only for >3 months or bottle fed
Whincup17CSSubjects recruited from 9 of 24 towns involved in the British Regional Heart Study, UKParental questionnaire at 5-8 years1979-835-8 years1221, 1787Standard formulaYes, exclusively breast or bottle fed for first 3 months
Forsyth12CSRecruited from four European centres (Dundee, Birmingham, UK; Leuven, Belgium; Milan, Italy)In infancy19925.8 years83, 71Standard formulaNS
Williamsw19CDunedin Multidisciplinary; Health and Development StudyParental questionnaire at 3 years1972-37 and follow up at 18192, 327; 197, 319NSYes, exclusively breast fed (median 28 weeks) or bottle fed
Wilson14CDundee infant feeding study, ScotlandIn infancy1983-66-10 years73, 99Bottle fedYes, exclusively bottle fed or exclusively breast fed for ≥15 weeks
Lucas18RCTBorn at Norwich, Cambridge, Sheffield, Ipswich, and King's Lynn neonatal units, UK <1.85 kg birth weightIn infancy1982-857.5-8 Years66, 60Standard formula (Farley's Ostermilk)Yes, randomised to breast milk or preterm formula within 48 hours of birth
Ronaw16CSNational Study of Health and Growth England 1993 sample; England 1994 sample; Scotland 1994 sampleAll parental questionnaire at 9 years1983-5; 1984-; 1983-6All 8-9 years157, 308; 213, 318; 124, 273All not knownYes, all exclusively breast fed for ≥3 months or bottle fed
Esposito-Del Puentew9CSChildren from a primary school in Naples, ItalyParental questionnaire at 9-11 years1980-29-11 years43, 17Standard formulaNS
BCS70w3CNational Child Development Study and British Cohort Study 1970Parental questionnaire at 5 years197010 years951, 5133UnknownNo, breast fed partly or wholly for ≥3 months or not breast fed
Ten Towns Heart Health Study19Mixed CTen Towns Heart Health Study, UKParental questionnaire at 5-7 years1982-613-16 (mean 15) years980, 951Standard formulaYes, exclusively breast or bottle fed for first 3 months
Taittonen15CPart of Cardiovascular Risk Study in FinnsParental questionnaire1962-7417 years760, 150NSUnknown, exclusive breast feeding status not given, breast feeding >3 months
Kolacekw11CBorn in three locations in CroatiaIn infancy1968-918-23 years199, 7827% bottle fed, 73% fed diluted cows' milkYes, exclusively breast or bottle fed for first ≥3 months
Leesonw12CSBorn in Cambridge maternity hospital, UKMaternal recall1969-7520-28 years149, 182NSYes, formula feeding only or breast feeding, but minimum duration of feeding not given
Ravelliw15CMembers of Dutch Famine Birth CohortPostnatal medical records1943-748-53 years520, 105Diluted cows' milk, added sugar, buttermilk, rice flourNo, bottle fed and partly breast fed, feeding status recorded 10.4 days after birth
Wadsworthw18CMedical Research Council National Survey of Health and DevelopmentIn infancy194653 years1507, 628NSExclusively breast fed for 3 months or not breast fed
Fallw10CAdults born in Hertfordshire, UKBirth records1920-3059-71 years862, 68Probably cows' milkYes, exclusively breast or bottle fed
Overall pooled estimate based on random effects model due to heterogeneity between 26 estimates of SBP (P<0.001), 23 estimates 8471, 11292 of DBP (P=0.008)
Mean (SE) systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)
Study (continued)Type of sphygmomanometer, No of measuresUnadjustedAdjustedUnadjustedAdjusted
Cohenw4Automated Dinamap (Critikon; Tampa, FL, USA), 32.40 (3.48)−2.40 (3.25)
Zinnerw21Automated Roche Arterisonde ultrasonic (Roche Medical Electronics; Cranbury, NJ, USA), NS0.00 (0.94)−0.70 (0.92)
Dillonw7Automated Doppler ultrasound system (Parkes) and manual, NS4.11 (5.13)2.17 (3.01)
Bernsteinw1Unknown Doppler method, NS−4.10 (2.00)
Schachterw17Automated Arteriosonde (Roche), 60.50 (1.67)0.40 (1.37)
Pomeranzw14Automated Dinamap 8100 vital signs (Critikon; USA), NS−6.10 (2.45)−7.30 (3.20)
Boultonw2Manual standard mercury, NS−4.11 (3.12)††;
Zemanw20Automated AVM 4, NS−4.91 (2.10)0.33 (0.90)
Baranowski13Automated Dinamap 845 XT/XT-IEC adult and paediatric vital signs monitor (Critikon; USA), 4−2.17 (1.61)§−2.52 (1.60)0.48 (1.42)§0.24 (1.44)
Whincup17Automated Dinamap 1846 SX P (Critikon; USA), 3−0.20 (0.33)−0.51 (0.31)−0.26 (0.23)−0.44 (0.23)
Forsyth12Automated Omron 711 (Omron Healthcare; Hamburg, Germany), 3−2.2 (1.6)−3.4 (1.4)
Williamsw19Manual mercury (London School of Hygiene, UK), 2-3−0.50 (0.66), −2.63 (1.34)−0.84 (0.64), −2.89 (1.47)−0.70 (0.61), −2.66 (1.36)−0.93 (0.60), −2.78 (1.42)
Wilson14Manual Hawksley Random Zero (Hawksley; Lancing, Sussex, UK), NS−2.84 (1.40)−2.34 (1.19)−1.79 (1.23)−1.49 (1.23)
Lucas18Automated Accutor Datascope (Datascope; Paramus, NJ, USA) and manual, 20.10 (1.55)−0.70 (1.32)
Ronaw16Automated Dinamap 1846 (Critikon; USA), 31.46 (0.84); −2.75 (0.86); −1.29 (1.01)1.47 (0.81); −2.58 (0.80); −1.57 (1.01)2.54 (0.76); −2.34 (0.75); −0.97 (0.84)2.57 (0.75); −2.27 (0.73); −1.2 (0.83)
Esposito-Del Puentew9NS, NS−4.13 (2.86)−5 (2.86)0.11 (0.86)0.04 (0.85)
BCS70w3Manual, 1−0.16 (0.38)−0.50 (0.38)−0.21 (0.33)−0.41 (0.33)
Ten Towns Heart Health Study19Automated Dinamap 1846SX oscillometric blood pressure recorder (Critikon; USA), 20.32 (0.64)**0.24 (0.59)−0.17 (0.35)**−0.22 (0.35)
Taittonen15Manual Hawksley Random Zero (Hawksley; UK), NS−5.48 (1.14)††
Kolacekw11Manual Hawksley Random Zero (Hawksley; UK), 20.00 (1.96)0.75 (1.40)
Leesonw12NS, NS0.00 (1.55)−1.00 (0.94)
Ravelliw15Automated Profilomat auscultatory device (Diestronic Medical Systems Ag; Bugdorf, Switzerland), 40.20 (1.65)‡‡0.90 (1.08)‡‡
Wadsworthw18Automated Omron HEM-705CP (Omron; Tokyo, Japan), 1−0.94 (0.97)−0.57 (0.97)−0.32 (0.57)−0.05 (0.57)
Fallw10Automated Dinamap (Critikon; USA), 2−2.64 (2.88)−2.76 (2.78)−0.96 (1.38)−1.00 (1.35)
Overall pooled estimate based on random effects model due to heterogeneity between 26 estimates of SBP (P<0.001), 23 estimates of DBP (P=0.008)−1.10 (95% CI −1.78 to −0.42); P=0.001−0.79 (95% CI −1.42 to −0.16); P=0.014−0.36 (95% CI −0.79 to 0.08); P=0.111−0.39 (95% CI −0.90 to 0.13); P=0.141
  • CS=cross sectional; C=cohort; RCT=randomised controlled trial; SBP=systolic blood pressure; DBP=diastolic blood pressure; NS=not stated.

  • *Additionally adjusted for height and body mass index.

  • † Studies contributing previously unpublished data.

  • ‡ Adjusted for sex.

  • § Adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity.

  • ¶Adjusted for age and sex.

  • **Adjusted for age, town, ethnicity, sex, observer, and cuff size.

  • ††Weighted average of male and female values.

  • ‡‡Total sample standard deviation used for breast and bottle fed groups.