Table 11

Results of intervention studies

Author(s)Follow up target(s)Percentage of women completingIntention to treat analysisOdds ratios or relative risks and confidence intervalsMultivariate analysis or adjustment for confounders
Harwell et al (1998)196 monthsNot applicableNot applicablePercentage of women referred to community health centre staff:
•No difference from baseline 2%
•4% after training (not significant)
•Relative risk 1.44 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.03)
Percentage of women referred to outside agency:
•Increased from baseline 0%
•4% after training (P<0.05)
•Relative risk 1.81 (1.45 to 2.28)
Shepard et al (1999)2712-24 monthsNot applicableNot applicablePercentage of women referred:Reanalysis controlling for age gave similar effect sizes for referrals (non-significant) and information giving (P<0.001)
•No difference from baseline 3%
•13% at 12 months (P=0.20)
•17% at 24 months (P=0.10)
Percentage of women given information:
•Increased from baseline 0.03%
•74% at 12 months (P<0.001)
•78% at 24 months (P<0.001)
*Fanslow et al (1998)223 monthsNot applicableNot applicableIncrease in number of referrals at intervention ED:
•13 (25%) post-protocol
•1 (2%) pre-protocol
No significant changes over time found at comparison ED (no figures stated)
*Fanslow et al (1999)233 months plus 12 months (total 15 months)Not applicableNot applicableNo details specific to referrals, but implication that improved management at 3 months was not sustained over following year
Muellman and Feighny (1999)28Not clear (70 weeks?)Not statedNoUse of shelter:
•Intervention group used more (P=0.003)
•29 (28%) intervention v 11% comparison (95% CI 6% to 27%)
Shelter sponsored counselling:
•Intervention group used more (P<0.001)
•16 (15%) intervention v 1% comparison (7% to 21%)
Calls to police:
•No difference (P=0.14)
•37 (35%) intervention v 29 (25%) comparison (−3% to 24%)
Protection orders:
•No difference (P=0.58)
•6 (6%) intervention v 10 (9%) comparison (−10% to 4%)
Repeat visits to ED for domestic violence injury:
•No difference (P=0.63)
•8 (8%) intervention v 13 (11%) comparison (−11% to 4%)
**McFarlane et al (1997)296 months and 12 months post-birth92% of women agreeing to participate (87% of those eligible to participate)NoResource use:Analyses adjusted for baseline differences in use of resources and police between groups
•No differences at 6 months (P=0.23)
•At 12 months, comparison group more likely to use (P=0.01)
Police use:
•No differences at 6 months (P=0.76)
•No differences at 12 months (P=0.70)
**McFarlane et al (1998)30Two during pregnancy and at 2, 6, and 12 months after birth90% of women agreeing to participate (87% of those eligible to participate)NoSignificant increase in adoption of each safety behaviour (P<0.0001) across time, with most behaviours showing a significant increase after first sessionResults did not vary by ethnic grouping or by parity, but some evidence that older women adopted safety behaviours more readily at entry and second session
**Parker et al (1999)31Intervention: two during pregnancy and at 2, 6, and 12 months post-birth; comparison: 6 and 12 months post-birth92% of women agreeing to participate (87% of those eligible to participate)NoIndex of spouse abuse scale:Analyses adjusted for baseline differences in scores
•At 6 and 12 months, comparison group reported more ongoing physical and non-physical abuse (P=0.007)
•Reanalysing scores with ethnicity and age controlled gave similar effects
Severity of violence against women scale:
•At 6 and 12 months, comparison group reported more threats and actual violence (P=0.052)
•Reanalysing scores with ethnicity controlled gave similar effect, but controlling for age increased effect (P=0.023)
Safety behaviours:
•At 12 months, intervention group used more safety behaviours (P<0.001)
Wiist and McFarlane (1999)263 months plus 12 months (total 15 months)Not applicableNot applicablePost-protocol: intervention—6 (67%) identified cases referred at 3 months, 9 (53%) identified cases referred at 12 months; comparison—0 (0%) identified cases referred at 3 or 12 months
Pre-protocol: no referrals documented at intervention or comparison clinics
  • ED=emergency department.

  • * Same study.

  • ** Same study.