Table 4

 Frequency of congenital malformations in women with bipolar disorder treated with mood stabilising drugs during early pregnancy

Mood stabilisersNo in groupNo (%) with outcomeP value*Congenital malformations
Lamotrigine1164 (3.5)0.122 talipes equinovarus†, 2 heart malformations
Antipsychotics1134 (3.5)0.111 talipes equinovarus†, 1 cleft palate, 1 urinary system agenesis, 1 heart malformation‡
Lithium1073 (2.8)0.192 heart malformations‡, 1 hypospadias
Valproate321 (3.1)0.341 hypospadias
Carbamazepine70 (0.0)

*Fisher’s exact test. P value for difference in proportions between women with treated bipolar disorder and women without bipolar disorder.

†Used lamotrigine and antipsychotics.

‡Used antipsychotics and lithium.