Table 2

 Odds of pregnancy and birth outcomes by maternal bipolar disorder and treatment with mood stabilisers during pregnancy

VariablesTotal NoNo (%) with outcomeOdds ratio (95% CI)P value
UnadjustedAdjusted*
Gestational diabetes:
 No bipolar disorder331 2635536 (1.7)1 (reference)1 (reference)0.96
 Untreated bipolar disorder55410 (1.8)1.06 (0.56 to 2.02)1.01 (0.53 to 1.94)
 Treated bipolar disorder†3206 (1.9)1.18 (0.55 to 2.56)1.12 (0.52 to 2.43)
Instrumental delivery‡:
 No bipolar disorder331 26381 730 (24.7)1 (reference)1 (reference)<0.001
 Untreated bipolar disorder554183 (33.0)1.52 (1.27 to 1.82)1.49 (1.24 to 1.81)
 Treated bipolar disorder†320109 (34.1)1.52 (1.20 to 1.92)1.39 (1.09 to 1.79)
Caesarean delivery:
 No bipolar disorder331 26355 692 (16.8)1 (reference)1 (reference)<0.001
 Untreated bipolar disorder554130 (23.5)1.52 (1.25 to 1.85)1.45 (1.18 to 1.78)
 Treated bipolar disorder†32082 (25.6)1.69 (1.32 to 2.16)1.56 (1.20 to 2.03)
Non-spontaneous start of delivery:
 No bipolar disorder331 26368 533 (20.7)1 (reference)1 (reference)<0.001
 Untreated bipolar disorder554171 (30.9)1.69 (1.4 to 2.03)1.57 (1.30 to 1.90)
 Treated bipolar disorder†320120 (37.5)2.28 (1.82 to 2.87)2.12 (1.68 to 2.67)
Preterm birth, <37 weeks’ gestation:
 No bipolar disorder331 26315 785 (4.8)1 (reference)1 (reference)0.03
 Untreated bipolar disorder55442 (7.6)1.64 (1.20 to 2.24)1.48 (1.08 to 2.03)
 Treated bipolar disorder†32026 (8.1)1.75 (1.18 to 2.62)1.50 (1.01 to 2.24)
Apgar score <7 at 5 min§:
 No bipolar disorder331 2633541 (1.1)1 (reference)1 (reference)0.48
 Untreated bipolar disorder55411 (2.0)1.87 (1.03 to 3.4)1.56 (0.85 to 2.86)
 Treated bipolar disorder†3204 (1.3)1.17 (0.44 to 3.13)0.88 (0.33 to 2.34)
Neonatal hypoglycaemia:
 No bipolar disorder331 2638302 (2.5)1 (reference)1 (reference)0.19
 Untreated bipolar disorder55424 (4.3)1.76 (1.15 to 2.68)1.51 (1.04 to 2.43)
 Treated bipolar disorder†32011 (3.4)1.38 (0.75 to 2.52)1.18 (0.64 to 2.16)

*Adjusted for birth order and for maternal age, cohabitation, smoking, height, and diagnosis of alcohol or substance misuse disorder.

†Filling a prescription for lithium, antipsychotics, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, or valproate during pregnancy.

‡Includes caesarean delivery, forceps, and ventouse.

§Adjusted for caesarean delivery, preterm birth, and remaining covariates in table.