Table 1

 Maternal personal and clinical characteristics

CharacteristicsNo bipolar disorder (n=331 263)Bipolar disorder
No mood stabilisers (n=554)Mood stabilisers* (n=320)
Maternal country of birth:
 Sweden259 956 (78.5)482 (87.0)277 (86.6)
 Other Nordic countries66 037 (19.9)59 (10.6)37 (11.6)
 Non-Nordic countries5270 (1.6)13 (2.3)6 (1.9)
Maternal age at delivery:
 <25 years48 336 (14.6)93 (16.8)59 (18.4)
 25-34 years211 660 (63.9)324 (58.5)193 (60.3)
 ≥35 years71 267 (21.5)137 (24.7)68 (21.3)
Birth order:
 1149 207 (45.0)260 (46.9)172 (53.8)
 2-3163 692 (49.4)260 (46.9)129 (40.3)
 ≥418 364 (5.5)34 (6.1)19 (5.9)
Maternal cohabitation:
 With father of child312 737 (94.4)483 (87.2)267 (83.4)
 Single5651 (1.7)29 (5.2)23 (7.2)
 Other12 875 (3.9)42 (7.6)30 (9.4)
Maternal smoking in early pregnancy:
 No308 233 (93.0)444 (80.1)251 (78.4)
 <1017 765 (5.4)76 (13.7)42 (13.1)
 ≥105265 (1.6)34 (6.1)27 (8.4)
Maternal body mass index in early pregnancy:
 <18.57706 (2.3)11 (2.0)2 (0.6)
 18.5-24.9195 804 (59.1)271 (48.9)148 (46.3)
 25.0-29.978 639 (23.7)155 (28.0)83 (25.9)
 ≥30.037 330 (11.3)92 (16.6)66 (20.6)
Ever admitted to psychiatric hospital before pregnancy8339 (2.5)266 (48.0)216 (67.5)
Time since most recent admission to psychiatric hospital :
 < 1 year298 (3.6)26 (9.8)68 (31.5)
 1-2 years1479 (17.7)68 (25.6)65 (30.1)
 >2 years6562 (78.7)172 (64.7)83 (38.4)
Admitted to psychiatric hospital during present pregnancy191 (0.1)4 (0.7)8 (2.5)
Diagnosis of substance misuse disorder†:5793 (1.7)93 (17.0)66 (20.1)
 Alcohol misuse4087 (1.2)57 (10.3)41 (12.8)
 Other substance misuse2522 (0.8)60 (10.8)47 (14.7)

*Lithium, antipsychotics, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, or valproate.

†Inpatient or outpatient diagnoses since 1997 with ICD-10 codes F10-F19.