Table 4

 Number of trials examining primary disease, number of regimens tested, and amount of evidence from randomised clinical trials supporting first and second line treatments in 16 neglected tropical diseases

TrialsRegimensNo of trials/sample size supporting first and second line treatments
Schistosomiasis11434Praziquantel (76/14488); oxamniquine (23/2419)
Ascariasis7937mebendazole (24/5865); albendazole (33/7526); pyrantel pamoate (16/1838); levamisole (12/1254); ivermectin (5/1432); piperazine citrate (5/223); nitazoxanide (1/35)
Hookworm7729Albendazole (40/7106); mebendazole (27/5790); pyrantel pamoate (16/1429); levamisole (3/400)
Trichuriasis6624Mebendazole (25/6321); albendazole (41/8739); ivermectin (5/1432)
Strongyloidiasis146Ivermectin (6/803); albendazole (11/1066)
Lymphatic filariasis7317Diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole (15/1953); diethylcarbamazine (44; /2901)
Visceral leishmaniasis6729Pentavalent antimonials (28/3026); liposomal amphotericin (7/758); miltefosine (5/754); amphotericin B deoxycholate (23/3999); paromomycin (5/1098); amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (1/405); amphotericin B lipid complex (5/284)
Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis6135Pentavalent antimonials (16/863); heat treatment (3/224)
New World cutaneous leishmaniasis4422Pentavalent antimonials (39/1589); miltefosine (5/398); pentamidine (2/55)
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis77Pentavalent antimonials (5/157); amphotericin B deoxycholate (1/10)
Onchocerciasis5326Ivermectin (27/5398); doxycycline plus ivermectin (2/150)
Multibacillary leprosy5655Rifampin, dapsone plus clofazimine (16/846)
Paucibacillary leprosy2116Rifampin plus dapsone (14/2299)
Trachoma2922Oral azithromycin (8/871); ophthalmic tetracyclines (14/1849)
Rabies1317PVCV IM (3/399); PCECV ID (4/171); PCECV IM (4/134); CPVCV IM (1/200); PDEV IM (1/52); HDCV IM (1/10); CPVCV IM plus rabies Ig (2/255); PCECV IM plus rabies Ig (2/159); PVCV ID (2/374); HDCV ID rabies Ig (1/78); HDCV IM plus rabies Ig (1/39); PVCV IM plus rabies Ig (1/47)
Cysticercosis327Albendazole plus corticosteroids (12/690); praziquantel plus corticosteroids (2/64)
American trypanosomiasis85Benznidazole (5/429); nifurtimox (1/27)
Echinococcosis158Surgery alone (8/279); surgery plus albendazole (5/209); albendazole (4/224); percutaneous drainage plus albendazole (2/37); placebo or no treatment (2/64) mebendazole (3/204)
Human African trypanosomiasis*107Melarsoprol (5/1865); nifurtimox plus eflornithine (3/211); eflornithine (4/536); pentamidine (1/52)
Dracunculiasis96No recommended first line treatment against disease among tested agents
Buruli ulcer58Streptomycin plus rifampin (1/76); streptomycin, rifampin plus clarithromycin (1/75); streptomycin plus rifampin followed by excision (1/16)
Dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever46No recommended first line treatment against disease among tested agents
Foodborne trematode infections:
 Fascioliasis54Triclabendazole (4/399); nitazoxanide (1/80)
 Opisthorchiasis47Praziquantel (3/140)
 Clonorchiasis35Praziquantel (3/63)
 Paragonimiasis22Praziquantel (1/15); triclabendazole (2/201)
 Fasciolopsiasis11Praziquantel (1/85)

ID=intradermal; IM=intramuscular; PVCV=purified Vero cell vaccine; PCECV=purified chick embryo cell vaccine; CPVCV=chromatographically purified Vero cell vaccine; HDCV=human diploid cell rabies vaccine; PDEV=purified duck embryo vaccine; Ig=immunoglobulin.

*Early and late stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.