Table 1

 Characteristics of included randomised controlled trials

CharacteristicNo (%)
Examines primary disease854 (88.0)
Examines complication of disease 117 (12.0)
Location of study sites (WHO Regions)*:
 Africa283 (27.6)
 Southeast Asia276 (26.9)
 Americas201 (19.6)
 Eastern Mediterranean132 (12.9)
 Western Pacific96 (9.4)
 Europe38 (3.7)
No of sites:
 Single centre945 (97.3)
 Multicentre26 (2.7)
Cluster randomised trials27 (2.8)
Crossover trials15 (1.5)
 Contains explicit statement565 (58.2)
 Any industry funding107 (11.0)
 Any public funding388 (40.0)
 Any charity or foundation funding184 (18.9)
 Any university or hospital funding79 (8.1)
 No explicit statement of funding404 (41.6)
 Unable to ascertain2 (<1)
Trial size (total No randomised participants)†:
 Median (IQR)89 (42-184)
Follow-up (years):
 ≤1772 (79.5)
 >1199 (20.5)

IQR=interquartile range.

*Total number of study sites is more than 971 because of multicentre trials.

†Calculated with “units of randomisation” in each trial, including number of clusters in cluster randomised trials and number of randomised units in trials in which unit of randomisation was not individual (for example, skin lesions in leishmaniasis or eyes in trachoma). It slightly underestimates number of individual participants.