Table 2

 Differences in median age at death (95% confidence intervals) at 18 year follow-up

VariablesDifferences (95% CI) in median age at death (years)
Age adjustedMultivariate adjusted*Multivariate adjusted+multimorbidityMultiple imputation†
Personal characteristics:
 Women v men1.8 (1.5 to 2.2)‡2.4 (1.7 to 3.2)‡2.2 (1.3 to 3.1)‡2.0 (1.3 to 2.7)‡
 High v low education1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)‡0.9 (0.2 to 1.7)‡0.7 (−0.1 to 1.5)0.4 (−0.3 to 1.0)
 Non-manual v manual work0.4 (−0.3 to 1.2)—§—§—§
Lifestyle factors:
 Underweight v normal weight−1.1 (−1.7 to −0.4)‡−1.5 (−2.4 to −0.6)‡−0.8 (−1.7 to 0.2)−0.6 (−1.4 to 0.3)
 Overweight v normal weight0.0 (−0.6 to 0.6)−0.4 (−1.2 to 0.4)−0.1 (−0.8 to 0.8)0.2 (−0.6 to 1.0)
 Former v never smokers0.3 (−0.5 to 1.0)0.3 (−0.6 to 1.3)0.2 (−0.7 to 1.1)0.7 (−0.3 to 1.6)
 Current v never smokers−1.3 (−2.2 to −0.4)‡−0.9 (−1.9 to −0.0)‡−0.7 (−1.7 to 0.2)−1.2 (−2.2 to −0.2)‡
 Alcohol v no alcohol consumers1.3 (0.7 to 1.8)‡0.8 (0.1 to 1.6)‡0.5 (−0.3 to 1.2)0.5 (−0.2 to 1.2)
Social networks:
 Rich v limited or poor1.6 (0.8 to 2.5)‡0.7 (−0.6 to 2.1)1.9 (0.6 to 3.2)‡2.7 (0.9 to 4.6)‡
 Moderate v limited or poor0.0 (−0.6 to 0.6)−0.5 (−1.4 to 0.3)−0.5 (−1.2 to 0.3)0.4 (−0.4 to 1.1)
Leisure activities (yes v no):
 Mental1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)‡0.0 (−0.7 to 0.8)−0.1 (−0.8 to 0.6)0.3 (−0.3 to 0.9)
 Social1.8 (1.3 to 2.2)‡0.9 (0.0 to 1.7)‡1.0 (0.1 to 1.8)‡1.1 (0.4 to 1.8)‡
 Physical2.3 (1.5 to 3.1)‡2.0 (0.7 to 3.3)‡1.4 (0.2 to 2.7)‡1.9 (0.6 to 3.1)‡
 Productive1.3 (0.8 to 1.8)‡1.2 (0.3 to 2.1)‡0.9 (0.1 to 1.7)‡1.1 (0.3 to 1.9)‡
Health status¶:
 1 v 0 chronic conditions−2.0 (−2.4 to −1.6)‡—§−0.6 (−1.6 to 0.3)−1.4 (−2.2 to −0.5)‡
 ≥2 v 0 chronic conditions−4.7 (−5.2 to −4.2)‡—§−2.7 (−3.8 to −2.0)‡−3.7 (−4.4 to −3.0)‡

*Adjusted for all variables that were statistically significant in age adjusted models.

†Multiple imputation analysis based on 50 imputed datasets and estimates combined using Rubin’s method. All variables included in age adjusted models were used in multiple imputation models. The model was adjusted for all variables that were statistically significant in age adjusted models and for multimorbidity.

‡P<0.05.

§No estimate available because the factor was not included in the model.

¶Included malignancy, respiratory tract disease, mental disorders, endocrine disease, blood disease, neurosensorial disease, musculoskeletal disease, cardiovascular disease, urological disorders, and digestive disorders.