Table 2

 Relative risk of gout associated with use of antihypertensive drugs stratified by presence of hypertension

Use of antihypertensivesHypertensionNo hypertensionP for interaction
No (%) of controls (n=16 280)No (%) of cases (n=12 858)Adjusted relative risk* (95% CI)No (%) of controls (n=33 720)No (%) of cases (n=11 910)Adjusted relative risk* (95% CI)
Diuretics:
 Never6076 (37.32)2761 (21.47)130 161 (89.45)9445 (79.30)10.03
 Current (<31 days)6854 (42.10)8159 (63.45)2.36 (2.21 to 2.52)1728 (5.12)1762 (14.79)3.01 (2.72 to 3.33)
 Recent (31-365 days)1001 (6.15)806 (6.27)1.57 (1.40 to 1.76)461 (1.37)244 (2.05)1.65 (1.38 to 1.97)
 Past (>365 days)2349 (14.43)1132 (8.80)0.98 (0.90 to 1.08)1370 (4.06)459 (3.85)1.05 (0.93 to 1.18)
β blockers:
 Never 8089 (49.69)5079 (39.50)129 711 (88.11)9933 (83.40)10.04
 Current (<31 days)4749 (29.17)4967 (38.63)1.48 (1.40 to 1.57)1620 (4.80)962 (8.08)1.16 (1.04 to 1.29)
 Recent (31-365 days)671 (4.12)625 (4.86)1.20 (1.06 to 1.36)405 (1.20)204 (1.71)1.12 (0.93 to 1.36)
 Past (>365 days)2771 (17.02)2187 (17.01)1.03 (0.96 to 1.11)1984 (5.88)811 (6.81)0.97 (0.88 to 1.06)
Calcium channel blockers:
 Never 9127 (56.06)6685 (51.99)131 768 (94.21)10 951 (91.95)10.17
 Current (<31 days)4603 (28.27)3388 (26.35)0.87 (0.82 to 0.93)997 (2.96)447 (3.75)0.84 (0.73 to 0.97)
 Recent (31-365 days)651 (4.00)670 (5.21)1.03 (0.91 to 1.17)194 (0.58)95 (0.80)0.72 (0.55 to 0.96)
 Past (>365 days)1899 (11.66)2115 (16.45)1.13 (1.04 to 1.23)761 (2.26)417 (3.50)0.96 (0.82 to 1.11)
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors:
 Never 9238 (56.74)5630 (43.79)132 103 (95.20)10 412 (87.42)10.04
 Current (<31 days)4733 (29.07)4818 (37.47)1.24 (1.17 to 1.32)1136 (3.37)1085 (9.11)1.37 (1.21 to 1.54)
 Recent (31-365 days)598 (3.67)709 (5.51)1.32 (1.16 to 1.50)162 (0.48)144 (1.21)1.36 (1.05 to 1.77)
 Past (>365 days)1711 (10.51)1701 (13.23)1.08 (0.99 to 1.19)319 (0.95)269 (2.26)1.11 (0.90 to 1.38)
Losartan:
 Never 15 551 (95.52)12 141 (94.42)133 596 (99.63)11 797 (99.05)10.20
 Current (<31 days)482 (2.96)397 (3.09)0.81 (0.70 to 0.94)92 (0.27)72 (0.60)0.90 (0.62 to 1.30)
 Recent (31-365 days)77 (0.47)83 (0.65)0.96 (0.68 to 1.35)16 (0.05)11 (0.09)0.51 (0.21 to 1.25)
 Past (>365 days)170 (1.04)237 (1.84)1.10 (0.89 to 1.37)16 (0.05)30 (0.25)1.74 (0.88 to 3.43)
Non-losartan angiotensin II receptor blockers:
 Never 15 073 (92.59)11 270 (87.65)133 581 (99.59)11 728 (98.47)10.72
 Current (<31 days)895 (5.50)1223 (9.51)1.29 (1.16 to 1.43)108 (0.32)145 (1.22)1.40 (1.04 to 1.88)
 Recent (31-365 days)134 (0.82)150 (1.17)1.05 (0.81 to 1.35)15 (0.04)16 (0.13)1.24 (0.55 to 2.80)
 Past (>365 days)178 (1.09)215 (1.67)1.13 (0.91 to 1.41)16 (0.05)21 (0.18)1.20 (0.56 to 2.58)

*Adjusted for sex, age, calendar year, number of visits to a general practitioner, body mass index, alcohol intake, ischaemic heart disease, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, chronic renal failure and heart failure, and simultaneously for the other antihypertensive drug classes.