Table 5

Subgroup analyses for trial methods and clinical characteristics for fetal outcomes in evaluation of dietary and lifestyle interventions in pregnancy

SubgroupBirth weight (g)Large for gestational ageSmall for gestational age
No of studiesMean difference (95% CI)P value for interactionNo of studiesRelative risk (95% CI)P value for interactionNo of studiesRelative risk (95% CI)P value for interaction
Intervention type:
 Diet10−60 (−190 to 80)0.2250.78 (0.51 to 1.19)0.1631.02 (0.75 to 1.37)0.76
 Physical activity14−60 (−120 to −10)40.52 (0.25 to 1.09)41.28 (0.52 to 3.15)
 Mixed710 (−50 to 70)91.05 (0.79 to 1.40)40.88 (0.53 to 1.44)
Diabetic status:
 Women with diabetes5−60 (−170 to 50)0.80130.97(0.73 to 1.27)0.3431.03 (0.75 to 1.41)0.77
 Normal women26−40 (−100 to 10)50.76 (0.50 to 1.15)80.95 (0.64 to 1.42)
BMI:
 Obese and overweight9*−20 (−90 to 50)0.437†1.05 (0.68 to 1.63)0.134*†1.17 (0.77 to 1.80)0.35
 Any weight23*−60 (−130 to 10)12†0.71 (0.55 to 0.91)9*†0.92 (0.68 to 1.24)
Maternal weight change with intervention:
 Significantly reduced7−170 (−300 to −40)0.0025‡0.79 (0.50 to 1.25)0.702‡1.03 (0.74 to 1.42)0.78
 No significant change24−10 (−50 to −30)12‡0.88 (0.66 to 1.17)8‡0.95 (0.64 to 1.42)
Risk of bias (allocation concealment):
 High risk26−60 (−120 to 0)0.33150.82 (0.63 to 1.08)0.6670.89 (0.63 to 1.25)0.35
 Low risk50 (−90 to 80)30.96 (0.51 to 1.80)41.13 (0.79 to 1.62)

*Polley et al66 data presented separately for normal weight women and overweight women.

†Phelan 2011 et al65 data presented separately for normal weight women and overweight women.

‡Ferrara 2011 et al58 did not provide data for gestational weight gain.