Table 4

Subgroup analyses for trial methods and clinical characteristics for maternal outcomes in evaluation of dietary and lifestyle interventions in pregnancy

SubgroupGestational weight gain (kg)Pre-eclampsia
No of studiesMean difference (95% CI)P value for interactionNo of studiesRelative risk (95% CI)P value for interaction
Intervention type:
 Diet10−3.84 (−5.22 to −2.45)<0.00160.67 (0.53 to 0.85)0.05
 Physical activity14−0.72 (−1.20 to −0.25)0
 Mixed10−1.06 (−1.67 to −0.46)41.16 (0.70 to 1.90)
Diabetic status:
 Women with diabetes4−1.85 (−2.44 to −1.26)0.3330.65 (0.50 to 0.84)0.06
 Normal women30−1.4 (−2.09 to −0.71)71.01 (0.68 to 1.50)
BMI:
 Obese and overweight11*†−2.41 (−4.04 to -0.77)0.057†0.81 (0.58 to 1.14)0.49
 Any weight25*†−0.63 (−1.24 to -0.02)4†0.70 (0.53 to 0.92)
Maternal weight change with intervention:
 Significantly reduced 40.61 (0.47 to 0.79)0.009
 No significant change 61.12 (0.77 to 1.61)
Risk of bias (allocation concealment):
 High risk28−0.89 (−1.61 to −0.17)0.0770.73 (0.56 to 0.93)0.76
 Low risk6−2.14 (−3.28 to −1.01)30.78 (0.53 to 1.16)

*Polley et al66 data presented separately for normal weight women and overweight women.

†Phelan 2011 et al65 data presented separately for normal weight women and overweight women.