Table 3

Effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions in pregnancy* on secondary fetal and neonatal outcomes (ranked as critically important by Delphi survey, except for infant hyperbilirubinaemia). Summary estimates are relative risks unless stated otherwise

No of studiesNo of participantsRelative risk (95% CI)P valueI2 (%)
Dietary intervention
Intrauterine death228 3013200.15 (0.02 to 1.20)0.070
Admission to neonatal intensive care unit228 3119620.98 (0.66 to 1.47)0.9377
Shoulder dystocia328 31 3420820.38 (0.21 to 0.69)0.0010
Birth trauma228 3119610.36 (0.11 to 1.23)0.100
Respiratory distress syndrome228 3119621.05 (0.48 to 2.28)0.9158
Infant hypoglycaemia328 31 3418771.05 (0.83 to 1.33)0.6941
Infant hyperbilirubinaemia228 3118980.84 (0.64 to 1.10)0.190
Mixed approach
Intrauterine death0
Admission to neonatal intensive care unit1673040.98 (0.56 to 1.71) 0.94NA
Shoulder dystocia1632350.90 (0.06 to 14.14)0.94NA
Birth trauma0
Respiratory distress syndrome0
Infant hypoglycaemia257 632692.35 (0.47 to 11.76)0.30
Infant hyperbilirubinaemia0
All interventions
Intrauterine death213200.15 (0.02 to 1.20)0.070
Admission to neonatal intensive care unit322661.00 (0.75 to 1.33)1.0058
Shoulder dystocia423170.39 (0.22 to 0.70)0.0020
Birth trauma219610.36 (0.11 to 1.23)0.100
Respiratory distress syndrome219621.05 (0.48 to 2.28)0.9158
Infant hypoglycaemia521461.07 (0.85 to 1.35)0.5510
Infant hyperbilirubinaemia218980.84 (0.64 to 1.10)0.190

*No randomised studies evaluated effect of physical activity for above outcomes.

NA=not applicable.