Table 2

 Measures of disease association and adjustments to outcomes in studies of association of chocolate consumption with risk of cardiometabolic disorders

StudyOutcome measuresAdjustmentsMeasures of association (95% CI)
Oba et al 201016Incidence of diabetesAge, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, education (years), alcohol intake, total energy intake, fat intake, menopausal status (in women)Hazard ratios 0.65 (0.43 to 0.97) men, 0.73 (0.48 to 1.93) women
Mink et al 200714Coronary heart disease mortality, stroke mortalityAge, energy consumption, marital status, education, blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, physical activity, smoking, oestrogen useRate ratios 0.98 (0.88 to 1.10), 0.85 (0.70 to 1.03)
Janszky et al 200913Congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, strokeAge, sex, smoking status, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption (g/day), filtered coffee intake (cups/day), educational attainment, sweet scoreHazard ratios 0.78 (0.52 to 1.16), 0.34 (0.17 to 0.70), 0.86 (0.54 to 1.37), 0.62 (0.33 to 1.16)
Buijsse et al 20067Cardiovascular disease mortalityAge; body mass index; smoking status; alcohol consumption; physical activity; aspirin use; anticoagulant use; diet prescription (Y/N); consumption of: vegetables, fruit, low and medium fat dairy, meat, sugar confectionery other than chocolate, cookies, savoury foods, nuts, and coffee; and total calorie intakeRelative risk 0.50 (0.32 to 0.78)
Mostofsky et al 201015Heart failureAge, education, body mass index, physical activity, smoking status, living alone, HRT intake, alcohol intake, family history of myocardial infarction before 60 years, self reported history of hypertension, and cholesterol levelRate ratio 1.23 (0.73 to 2.08)
Buijsse et al 20109Myocardial infarction, strokeAge, sex, alcohol intake, employment status, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, occupational physical activity, sports cycling, education, and total energy intakeRelative risks 0.73 (0.47 to 1.18), 0.52 (0.30 to 0.89)
Djousse et al 201010Coronary heart diseaseAge, sex, dietary linoleic acid intake, education, exercise, smoking status, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetables intake, energy intake, non-chocolate candy intakeOdds ratio 0.43 (0.27 to 0.68)

HRT=hormone replacement therapy