Table 6

  Adjusted* hazard ratios for mortality according to BMI and smoking†

BMI and smokingHazard ratio (95% CI)P value
Extreme underweight (BMI<17)
Non-smoker1.24 (0.81 to 1.91)0.32
Light smoker1.80 (1.25 to 2.59)0.002
Heavy smoker3.09 (2.26 to 4.23)<0.001
Moderate underweight (BMI 17-18.4)
Non-smoker0.92 (0.72 to 1.17)0.48
Light smoker1.31 (1.06 to 1.61)0.01
Heavy smoker2.00 (1.64 to 2.44)<0.001
Normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9)
Non-smoker1.00
Light smoker1.56 (1.40 to 1.73)<0.001
Heavy smoker2.10 (1.89 to 2.33)<0.001
Overweight (BMI 25-29.9)
Non-smoker1.36 (1.05 to 1.77)0.02
Light smoker2.33 (1.81 to 3.00)<0.001
Heavy smoker2.55 (2.03 to 3.20)<0.001
Obesity (BMI ≥30)
Non-smoker2.14 (1.24 to 3.72)0.01
Light smoker2.88 (1.54 to 5.39)0.00
Heavy smoker4.74 (3.20 to 7.03)<0.001

*Adjusted for muscle strength, socioeconomic status, and age.

†Light smoking 1-10 cigarettes/day, heavy smoking >10 cigarettes/day.