Primary and secondary outcome measuresBMJ 2010; 340 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c1938 (Published 14 April 2010) Cite this as: BMJ 2010;340:c1938
- Philip Sedgwick, senior lecturer in medical statistics
- 1Centre for Medical and Healthcare Education, St George’s, University of London, London
A randomised placebo controlled trial assessed the efficacy, acceptability, and safety of an alkane vapocoolant spray in decreasing pain during intravenous cannulation.1 Adult patients in an emergency department were randomly assigned to vapocoolant spray or control. The primary outcome measure was pain with cannulation. Secondary outcome measures included discomfort with spray on administration, success rate of cannulation, and …
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