Mortality among “never smokers” living with smokers: two cohort studies, 1981-4 and 1996-9

Sarah Hill, Tony Blakely, Ichiro Kawachi, Alistair Woodward

All cause mortality among adults who have never smoked, by household exposure to secondhand smoke, 1981-4 and 1996-9

Rate ratio (95% confidence interval)
CohortNo of deathsPerson yearsStandardised mortality (per 100 000 a year)Standardised*Adjusted
1981-4
Men:
No exposure3240211 8521530.4
Exposure84657 3441683.61.10 (0.99 to 1.22)1.17 (1.05 to 1.30)
Women:
No exposure4902435 4231009.8
Exposure1200138 6751050.41.04 (0.96 to 1.13)1.06 (0.97 to 1.16)
1996-9
Men:
No exposure3684387 2921024.6
Exposure68763 2441198.31.17 (1.05 to 1.31)1.16 (1.04 to 1.30)
Women:
No exposure4026578 216671.6
Exposure756100 507854.81.27 (1.15 to 1.41)1.28 (1.16 to 1.42)

Raw numbers are randomly rounded to a near multiple of three, as per Statistics New Zealand's protocol. (Mortality and regression analyses are calculated using exact counts.)

  • * Standardised by age (five year age bands) and ethnicity (Maori, Pacific, and neither Maori nor Pacific).

  • † Adjusted for age, ethnicity, marital status, and socioeconomic position (that is, education, labour force status, household equivalised income, household car access, housing tenure, and small area deprivation index).