Evidence for risk of bias in cluster randomised trials: review of recent trials published in three general medical journalsBMJ 2003; 327 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7418.785 (Published 02 October 2003) Cite this as: BMJ 2003;327:785
- Additional references
w1. Carmen WF, Elder AG, Wallace LA, McAulay K, Walker A, Murray GD, et al. Effects of influenza vaccination of health-care workers on mortality of elderly people in long-term care: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:93-7.
w2. King M, Davidson O, Taylor F, Haines A, Sharp D, Turner R. Effectiveness of teaching general practitioners skills in brief cognitive behaviour therapy to treat patients with depression: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2002;324:947-52.
w3. Aveyard P, Cheng KK, Almond J, Sherratt E, Lancashire R, Lawrence T, et al. Cluster randomised controlled trial of expert system based on the transtheoretical ("stages of change") model for smoking prevention and cessation in schools. BMJ 1999;319:948-53.
w4. Bennewith O, Stocks N, Gunnell D, Peters TJ, Evans MO, Sharp DJ. General practice based intervention to prevent repeat episodes of deliberate self harm: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2002;324:1254-61.
w5. Chapman S, Cornwall J, Righetti J, Sung L. Preventing dog bites in children: randomised controlled trial of an educational intervention. BMJ 2000;320:1512-3.
w6. Field D, Draper ES, Gompels MJ, Green C, Johnson A, Shortland D, et al. Measuring later health status of high risk infants: randomised comparison of two simple methods of data collection. BMJ 2001;323:1276-81.
w7. Flottorp S, Oxman AD, Havelsrud K, Treweek S, Herrin J. Cluster randomised controlled trial of tailored interventions to improve the management of urinary tract infections in women and sore throat. BMJ 2002;325:367-72.
w8. Gavgani ASM, Hodjati MH, Mohite H, Davies CR. Effect of insecticide-impregnated dog collars on incidence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iranian children: a matched-cluster randomised trial. Lancet 2002;360;374-9.
w9. Graham A, Moore L, Sharp D, Diamond I. Improving teenagers’ knowledge of emergency contraception: cluster randomised controlled trial of a teacher led intervention. BMJ 2002;324:1179-84.
w10. Haider R, Ashworth A, Kabir I, Huttly SRA. Effect of community-based peer counsellors on exclusive breastfeeding practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;356:1643-7.
w11. Jolly K, Bradley F, Sharp S, Smith H, Thompson S, Kinmonth AL, et al. Randomised controlled trial of follow up care in general practice of patients with myocardial infarction and angina: final results of the Southampton heart integrated care project (SHIP). BMJ 1999;318:706-11.
w12. Jordhoy MS, Fayers P, Saltnes T, Ahlner-Elmqvist M, Jannert M, Kaasa S. A palliative-care intervention and death at home: a cluster randomised trial. Lancet 2000;356:888-93.
w13. Kannus P, Parkkari J, Niemi S, Pasanen M, Palvanen M, Jarvinen M, et al. Prevention of hip fractures in elderly people with use of a hip protector. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1506-13.
w14. Kendrick D, Marsh P, Fielding K, Miller P. Preventing injuries in children: cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care. BMJ 1999;318:980-3.
w15. Kidane G, Morrow RH. Teaching mothers to provide home treatment of malaria in Tigray, Ethiopia: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000;356:550-5.
w16. Kinmonth AL, Woodcock A, Griffin S, Spiegal N, Campbell MJ. Randomised controlled trial of patient centred care of diabetes in general practice: impact on current wellbeing and future disease risk. BMJ 1998;317:1202-8.
w17. Kroeger A, Avila EV, Morison L. Insecticide impregnated curtains to control domestic transmission of cuntaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela: cluster randomised trial. BMJ 2002;325:810-3.
w18. MacArthur C, Winter HR, Bick DE, Knowles H, Lilford R, Henderson C, et al. Effects of redesigned community postnatal care on women’s health 4 months after birth: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359:378-85.
w19. McCartney P, Macdowall W, Thorogood M. A randomised controlled trial of feedback to general practitioners of their prophylactic aspirin prescribing. BMJ 1997;315:35-6.
w20. Moher M, Yudkin P, Wright L, Turner R, Fuller A, Schofield T, et al. Cluster randomised controlled trial to compare three methods of promoting secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in primary care. BMJ 2001;322:1338-42.
w21. Montgomery AA, Fahey T, Peters TJ, MacIntosh C, Sharp DJ. Evaluation of computer based clinical decision support system and risk chart for management of hypertension in primary care: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2000;320:686-90.
w22. Morrison J, Carroll L, Twaddle S, Cameron I, Grimshaw J, Leyland A, et al. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate guidelines for the management of infertility across the primary care-secondary care interface. BMJ 2001;322;1282-4.
w23. Morrow AL, Guerrero ML, Shults J, Calva JJ, Lutter C, Bravo J, et al. Efficacy of home-based peer counselling to promote exclusive breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999;353:1226-31.
w24. O’Cathain A, Walters SJ, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Kirkham M. Use of evidence based leaflets to promote informed choice in maternity care: randomised controlled trial in everyday practice. BMJ 2002;324:643-6.
w25. Olivarius NF, Beck-Nielson H, Andreasen AH, Horder M, Pedersen PA. Randomised controlled trial of structured personal care of type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMJ 2001;323:970-5.
w26. Premaratne UN, Sterne JAC, Marks GB, Webb JR, Azima H, Burney PGJ. Clustered randomised trial of an intervention to improve the management of asthma: Greenwich asthma study. BMJ 1999;318:1251-5.
w27. Sagliocca L, Amoroso P, Stroffolini T, Adamo B, Tosti ME, Lettieri G, et al. Efficacy of hepititis A vaccine in prevention of secondary hepatitis A infection: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999; 353:1136-9.
w28. Sahota P, Rudolf CJ, Dixey R, Hill AJ, Barth JH, Cade J. Randomised controlled trial of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 2001;323:1029-32.
w29. Shah S, Peat JK, Mazurski EJ, Wang H, Sindhusake D, Bruce C, et al. Effect of peer led programme for asthma education in adolescents: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322:583-5.
w30. Smeeth L, Fletcher AE, Stirling S, Nunes M, Breeze E, Edmond NG, et al. Randomised comparison of three methods of administering a screening questionnaire to elderly people: findings from the MRC trial of the assessment and management of older people in the community. BMJ 2001;323:1403-7.
w31. Steptoe A, Doherty S, Rink E, Kerry S, Kendrick T, Hilton S. Behavioural counselling in general practice for the promotion of healthy behaviour among adults at increased risk of coronary heart disease: randomised trial. BMJ 1999;319:943-8.
w32. Thompson C, Kinmonth AL, Stevens L, Peveler RC, Stevens A, Ostler KJ, et al. Effects of clinical-practice guideline and practice based education on detection and outcome of depression in primary care: Hampshire depression project randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2000;355:185-91.
w33. Van Eijk MEC, Avorn J, Porsius AJ, de Boer A. Reducing prescribing of highly anticholinergic antidepressants for elderly people: randomised trial of group versus individual academic detailing. BMJ 2001;322:654-7.
w34. Wawer MJ, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Paxton LA, Kiwanuka N, et al. Control of sexually transmitted diseases for AIDS prevention in Uganda: a randomised community trial. Lancet 1999;353:525-35.
w35. West KP Jr, Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Sharada R, et al. Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or β carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. BMJ 1999;318:570-5.
w36. Wight D, Raab GM, Henderson M, Abraham C, Buston K, Hart G, et al. Limits of teacher delivered sex education: interim behavioural outcomes from randomised trial. BMJ 2002;324:1430-5.
- This Week In The BMJ Published: 02 October 2003; BMJ 327 doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7418.0-c
- ResearchEffect of point of care testing for C reactive protein and training in communication skills on antibiotic use in lower respiratory tract infections: cluster randomised trialPublished: 05 May 2009; BMJ 338 doi:10.1136/bmj.b1374
- ResearchARTIST (osteoarthritis intervention standardized) study of standardised consultation versus usual care for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in primary care in France: pragmatic randomised controlled trialPublished: 23 February 2009; BMJ 338 doi:10.1136/bmj.b421
- Research Methods & Reporting Published: 09 October 2009; BMJ 339 doi:10.1136/bmj.b4006
- ResearchEffects of a physiotherapy and occupational therapy intervention on mobility and activity in care home residents: a cluster randomised controlled trialPublished: 01 September 2009; BMJ 339 doi:10.1136/bmj.b3123
- Research Published: 17 April 2008; BMJ 336 doi:10.1136/bmj.39517.495764.25
- ResearchImpact of CONSORT extension for cluster randomised trials on quality of reporting and study methodology: review of random sample of 300 trials, 2000-8Published: 26 September 2011; BMJ 343 doi:10.1136/bmj.d5886
- ResearchEffect of telehealth on use of secondary care and mortality: findings from the Whole System Demonstrator cluster randomised trialPublished: 21 June 2012; BMJ 344 doi:10.1136/bmj.e3874
- Research Methods & Reporting Published: 04 September 2012; BMJ 345 doi:10.1136/bmj.e5661
- ResearchTraining practitioners to deliver opportunistic multiple behaviour change counselling in primary care: a cluster randomised trialPublished: 19 March 2013; BMJ 346 doi:10.1136/bmj.f1191
- ResearchAn occupational therapy intervention for residents with stroke related disabilities in UK care homes (OTCH): cluster randomised controlled trialPublished: 05 February 2015; BMJ 350 doi:10.1136/bmj.h468
- Research Methods & Reporting Published: 06 February 2015; BMJ 350 doi:10.1136/bmj.h391
- Research Methods & ReportingThe ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to EbolaPublished: 27 July 2015; BMJ 351 doi:10.1136/bmj.h3740
- Research Methods & Reporting Published: 16 August 2016; BMJ 354 doi:10.1136/bmj.i4291
- Dietitians’ advice is evidence based and scientificBMJ February 20, 2018, 360 k650; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k650
- Risk of myocardial infarction in patients taking cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors or conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: population based nested case-control analysisBMJ June 11, 2005, 330 (7504) 1366; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7504.1366
- Junior doctor strikes had a “significant impact” on services but did not increase deaths, study findsBMJ February 19, 2018, 360 k782; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k782
- GMC chair’s reply to Nick Ross’s second letter regarding Hadiza Bawa-GarbaBMJ February 19, 2018, 360 k765; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k765
- Surgeons urge NHS England to ban minimum waitsBMJ February 19, 2018, 360 k804; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k804
- Informed consent in cluster randomised trials: new and common ethical challenges
- STEMS pilot trial: a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial to investigate the addition of patient direct access to physiotherapy to usual GP-led primary care for adults with musculoskeletal pain
- Timeline cluster: a graphical tool to identify risk of bias in cluster randomised trials
- The stepped wedge cluster randomised trial: rationale, design, analysis, and reporting
- Pragmatic Cluster Randomized Trials Using Covariate Constrained Randomization: A Method for Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs)
- An occupational therapy intervention for residents with stroke related disabilities in UK care homes (OTCH): cluster randomised controlled trial
- The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola
- Statistical analysis and handling of missing data in cluster randomised trials: protocol for a systematic review
- Impact of Conversation Map™ Education Tools Versus Regular Care on Diabetes-Related Knowledge of People With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Controlled Study
- Training practitioners to deliver opportunistic multiple behaviour change counselling in primary care: a cluster randomised trial
- Consort 2010 statement: extension to cluster randomised trials
- Effect of telehealth on use of secondary care and mortality: findings from the Whole System Demonstrator cluster randomised trial
- Impact of CONSORT extension for cluster randomised trials on quality of reporting and study methodology: review of random sample of 300 trials, 2000-8
- The design and use of cluster randomised controlled trials in evaluating injury prevention interventions: part 1. Rationale, design and informed consent
- Involving patients in cardiovascular risk management with nurse-led clinics: a cluster randomized controlled trial
- Bias in identifying and recruiting participants in cluster randomised trials: what can be done?
- Effects of a physiotherapy and occupational therapy intervention on mobility and activity in care home residents: a cluster randomised controlled trial
- Effect of point of care testing for C reactive protein and training in communication skills on antibiotic use in lower respiratory tract infections: cluster randomised trial
- ARTIST (osteoarthritis intervention standardized) study of standardised consultation versus usual care for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in primary care in France: pragmatic randomised controlled trial
- Internal and external validity of cluster randomised trials: systematic review of recent trials
- Selection bias in cluster trial
- Randomised trial of a parenting intervention during neonatal intensive care
- CONSORT statement: extension to cluster randomised trials
- Extending CONSORT to include cluster trials