Education does not explain association between income inequality and health

BMJ 2002; 324 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7349.1336/a (Published 01 June 2002) Cite this as: BMJ 2002;324:1336
  1. Tony A Blakely, senior research fellow (tblakely@wnmeds.ac.nz),
  2. Ichiro Kawachi, associate professor
  1. Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, PO Box 7343, Wellington, New Zealand
  2. Department of Health and Social Behavior and Harvard Center for Society and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 617 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA

    EDITOR—Muller has shown in an ecological study that lack of high school education accounts for the association of income inequality with mortality at state level in the United States.1 The implicit inference is that education at the level of the individual is responsible for the association with inequality of income.

    But ecological studies are weak …

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